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The internal dynamics of privatised public education: Fee-charging supplementary tutoring provided by teachers in Cambodia

Author

Listed:
  • Bray, Mark
  • Kobakhidze, Magda Nutsa
  • Liu, Junyan
  • Zhang, Wei

Abstract

Much literature is available on private schools that operate alongside public schools, and on public schools that are encouraged to operate more like businesses in order to become more efficient and client-oriented. This paper, by contrast, focuses on privatisation by default behind a façade of fee-free education. It concerns supplementary private tutoring provided by government-employed teachers, in many cases to their own students in large classes and on the school premises. Drawing on questionnaire and interview data from secondary school students and teachers in one province of Cambodia, the paper examines interlinked factors that contribute to this process. These factors include low teachers’ salaries, lack of instructional time, large classes, and the possibility of different teacher-student relationships in supplementary lessons. The paper is contextualised within the wider literatures on privatisation and shadow education.

Suggested Citation

  • Bray, Mark & Kobakhidze, Magda Nutsa & Liu, Junyan & Zhang, Wei, 2016. "The internal dynamics of privatised public education: Fee-charging supplementary tutoring provided by teachers in Cambodia," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 291-299.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:injoed:v:49:y:2016:i:c:p:291-299
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ijedudev.2016.04.003
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Luis Benveniste & Jeffery Marshall & M. Caridad Araujo, 2008. "Teaching in Cambodia," World Bank Other Operational Studies 8073, The World Bank.
    2. Jheng, Ying-Jie, 2015. "The influence of private tutoring on middle-class students’ use of in-class time in formal schools in Taiwan," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 1-8.
    3. Rogers, F. Halsey & Vegas, Emiliana, 2009. "No more cutting class ? reducing teacher absence and providing incentives for performance," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4847, The World Bank.
    4. Prateek Tandon & Tsuyoshi Fukao, 2015. "Educating the Next Generation : Improving Teacher Quality in Cambodia," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 21002, June.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Muhammad Abid MALIK, 2017. "Shadow Education: Evolution, Flaws And Further Development Of The Term," Social Sciences and Education Research Review, Department of Communication, Journalism and Education Sciences, University of Craiova, vol. 4(1), pages 6-29, August.
    2. Bhorkar, Shalini & Bray, Mark, 2018. "The expansion and roles of private tutoring in India: From supplementation to supplantation," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 148-156.
    3. Liu, Junyan & Bray, Mark, 2020. "Private Subtractory Tutoring: The Negative Impact of Shadow Education on Public Schooling in Myanmar," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 76(C).
    4. Idei, Rika & Kato, Hironori & Morikawa, So, 2020. "Contribution of rural roads improvement on children’s school attendance: Evidence in Cambodia," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 72(C).

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