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Supplementary Education in Turkey: Recent Developments and Future Prospects

Author

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  • Aysit Tansel

    () (Department of Economics, METU)

Abstract

This paper aims to provide the recent developments on the supplementary education system in Turkey. The national examinations for advancing to higher levels of schooling are believed to fuel the demand for Supplementary Education Centers (SEC). Further, we aim to understand the distribution of the SECs and of the secondary schools across the provinces of Turkey in order to evaluate the spacial equity considerations. The evolution of the SECs and of the secondary schools over time are described and compared. The provincial distribution of the SECs, secondary schools and the high school age population are compared. The characteristics of these distributions are evaluated to inform the about spatial equity issues. The distribution of high school age population that attend secondary schools and the distribution of the secondary school students that attend SECs across the provinces are compared. The evidence points out to significant provincial variations in various characteristics of SECs and the secondary schools. The distribution of the SECs is more unequal than that of the secondary schools. The provinces located mostly in the east and south east of the country have lower quality SECs and secondary schools. Further, the SEC participation among the secondary school students and the secondary school participation among the relevant age group are lower in some of the provinces indicating major disadvantages. The review of the most recent developments about the SECs, examination and comparison of provincial distributions of the SECs and of the secondary schools are novelties in this paper.

Suggested Citation

  • Aysit Tansel, 2013. "Supplementary Education in Turkey: Recent Developments and Future Prospects," ERC Working Papers 1310, ERC - Economic Research Center, Middle East Technical University, revised Sep 2013.
  • Handle: RePEc:met:wpaper:1310
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Tansel, Aysit, 2012. "Private Tutoring and the Question of Equitable Opportunities in Turkey," IZA Discussion Papers 6626, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    2. Zhang, Yu, 2013. "Does private tutoring improve students’ National College Entrance Exam performance?—A case study from Jinan, China," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 1-28.
    3. Antonio Di Paolo & Aysit Tansel, 2015. "Returns to Foreign Language Skills in a Developing Country: The Case of Turkey," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 51(4), pages 407-421, April.
    4. Tansel, Avsit, 2005. "Public-Private Employment Choice, Wage Differentials, and Gender in Turkey," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 53(2), pages 453-477, January.
    5. Tansel, AysIt & Bircan, Fatma, 2006. "Demand for education in Turkey: A tobit analysis of private tutoring expenditures," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 303-313, June.
    6. Aysit Tansel & Fatma Bircan, 2005. "Effect of Private Tutoring on University Entrance Examination Performance in Turkey," ERC Working Papers 0504, ERC - Economic Research Center, Middle East Technical University, revised Jun 2005.
    7. Tansel, Aysit, 1994. "Wage employment, earnings and returns to schooling for men and women in Turkey," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 305-320.
    8. Bray, Mark & Kwok, Percy, 2003. "Demand for private supplementary tutoring: conceptual considerations, and socio-economic patterns in Hong Kong," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(6), pages 611-620, December.
    9. Aysit Tansel, 1999. "General Versus Vocational High Schools and Labor Market Outcomes in Turkey," Working Papers 9905, Economic Research Forum, revised Feb 1999.
    10. Aysit Tansel & H. Mehmet Taşçı, 2010. "Hazard Analysis of Unemployment Duration by Gender in a Developing Country: The Case of Turkey," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 24(4), pages 501-530, December.
    11. Aysit Tansel, 2013. "Supplementary Education in Turkey: Recent Developments and Future Prospectss," Koç University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum Working Papers 1319, Koc University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum.
    12. Aysit TANSEL, 2008. "Changing Returns To Education For Men And Women In A Developing Country: Turkey, 1994, 2002-2005," EcoMod2008 23800140, EcoMod.
    13. Antonio Di Paolo & Aysit Tansel, 2015. "Returns to Foreign Language Skills in a Developing Country: The Case of Turkey," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 51(4), pages 407-421, April.
    14. Gokce Uysal & M. Alper Dincer, 2009. "Determinants of Student Achievement in Turkey," Working Papers 002, Bahcesehir University, Betam.
    15. Tansel, Aysit, 2002. "Determinants of school attainment of boys and girls in Turkey: individual, household and community factors," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 455-470, October.
    16. Hai-Anh Dang & F. Halsey Rogers, 2008. "The Growing Phenomenon of Private Tutoring: Does It Deepen Human Capital, Widen Inequalities, or Waste Resources?," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 23(2), pages 161-200, April.
    17. World Bank, 2011. "Improving the Quality and Equity of Basic Education In Turkey : Challenges and Options," World Bank Other Operational Studies 13250, The World Bank.
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    Cited by:

    1. Berberoglu, Giray & Tansel, Aysit, 2014. "Does private tutoring increase students’ academic performance? Evidence from Turkey," MPRA Paper 57370, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Aysit Tansel, 2013. "Supplementary Education in Turkey: Recent Developments and Future Prospectss," Koç University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum Working Papers 1319, Koc University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum.
    3. Aysit Tansel, 2015. "Inequality of Opportunities of Educational Achievement in Turkey Over Time," Working Papers 923, Economic Research Forum, revised Jun 2015.
    4. Jheng, Ying-Jie, 2015. "The influence of private tutoring on middle-class students’ use of in-class time in formal schools in Taiwan," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 1-8.
    5. Tansel, Aysit, 2015. "Inequality of Opportunities of Educational Achievement in Turkey over Time," IZA Discussion Papers 9005, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    6. Yeşilırmak, Muharrem, 2016. "A quantitative analysis of Turkish Private Education Reform," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 76-88.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Supplementary Education; Demand for Education; Turkey;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I20 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - General
    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • I22 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Educational Finance; Financial Aid

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