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Does Private Tutoring Payoff?

Author

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  • Gurun, Ayfer

    () (Southern Methodist University)

  • Millimet, Daniel L.

    () (Southern Methodist University)

Abstract

We assess the causal effect of private tutoring on the probability of university placement in Turkey. We find that tutoring increases the probability of being placed in a university when non-random selection is ignored. Moreover, among those utilizing private tutoring, greater expenditure on tutoring is also positively associated with university placement. However, we find evidence of positive selection into tutoring, but negative selection into greater expenditures among those receiving tutoring. Accounting for this pattern of non-random selection, we conclude that private tutoring has a negative causal effect on university placement overall, but conditional on receiving any tutoring, spending more on tutoring has a positive causal effect on university placement.

Suggested Citation

  • Gurun, Ayfer & Millimet, Daniel L., 2008. "Does Private Tutoring Payoff?," IZA Discussion Papers 3637, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp3637
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Daniel Millimet & Rusty Tchernis, 2008. "Minimizing Bias in Selection on Observables Estimators When Unconfoundness Fails," Caepr Working Papers 2008-008, Center for Applied Economics and Policy Research, Economics Department, Indiana University Bloomington.
    2. Joseph G. Altonji & Todd E. Elder & Christopher R. Taber, 2005. "Selection on Observed and Unobserved Variables: Assessing the Effectiveness of Catholic Schools," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 113(1), pages 151-184, February.
    3. Aysit Tansel & Fatma Bircan, 2007. "Private Supplementary Tutoring in Turkey Recent Evidence on Its Various Aspects," Working Papers 2008/9, Turkish Economic Association.
    4. Tansel, AysIt & Bircan, Fatma, 2006. "Demand for education in Turkey: A tobit analysis of private tutoring expenditures," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 303-313, June.
    5. Dang, Hai-Anh & Rogers, F. Halsey, 2008. "How to interpret the growing phenomenon of private tutoring : human capital deepening, inequality increasing, or waste of resources ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4530, The World Bank.
    6. Ferraro, Paul J. & McIntosh, Craig & Ospina, Monica, 2007. "The effectiveness of the US endangered species act: An econometric analysis using matching methods," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 54(3), pages 245-261, November.
    7. Black, Dan A. & Smith, J.A.Jeffrey A., 2004. "How robust is the evidence on the effects of college quality? Evidence from matching," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 121(1-2), pages 99-124.
    8. Aysit Tansel & Fatma Bircan, 2005. "Effect of Private Tutoring on University Entrance Examination Performance in Turkey," ERC Working Papers 0504, ERC - Economic Research Center, Middle East Technical University, revised Jun 2005.
    9. Joseph G. Altonji & Todd E. Elder & Christopher R. Taber, 2008. "Using Selection on Observed Variables to Assess Bias from Unobservables When Evaluating Swan-Ganz Catheterization," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(2), pages 345-350, May.
    10. Changhui Kang, 2007. "Does Money Matter? The Effect of Private Educational Expenditures on Academic Performance," Departmental Working Papers wp0704, National University of Singapore, Department of Economics.
    11. Dang, Hai-Anh, 2007. "The determinants and impact of private tutoring classes in Vietnam," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 683-698, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Bisma Haseeb Khan & Sahar Amjad Shaikh, 2013. "Analyzing the Market for Shadow Education in Pakistan: Does Private Tuition Affect the Learning Gap between Private and Public Schools?," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 18(Special E), pages 129-160, September.
    2. Ian K. McDonough & Constant I. Tra, 2017. "The impact of computer-based tutorials on high school math proficiency," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 52(3), pages 1041-1063, May.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    tutoring; Turkey; tertiary education; program evaluation;

    JEL classification:

    • C31 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models; Quantile Regressions; Social Interaction Models
    • H51 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Government Expenditures and Health
    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

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