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General versus vocational secondary education in developing countries: A review of the rates of return evidence

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  • Paul Bennell

Abstract

This article questions the prevailing orthodoxy concerning the social rates of return to general and vocational secondary education in developing countries. A critical examination of all the rates of return studies that have been used to establish this orthodoxy reveals that for the large majority of them, social RORs to general secondary education are not significantly higher than for specialist secondary vocational education.

Suggested Citation

  • Paul Bennell, 1996. "General versus vocational secondary education in developing countries: A review of the rates of return evidence," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(2), pages 230-247.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:jdevst:v:33:y:1996:i:2:p:230-247
    DOI: 10.1080/00220389608422464
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Psacharopoulos, George, 1994. "Returns to investment in education: A global update," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 22(9), pages 1325-1343, September.
    2. Psacharopoulos, George & Ying Chu Ng, 1992. "Earnings and education in Latin America : assessing priorities for schooling investments," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1056, The World Bank.
    3. Arriagada, Ana-Maria & Ziderman, Adrian, 1992. "Vocational secondary schooling, occupational choice, and earnings in Brazil," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1037, The World Bank.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ofer Malamud & Cristian Pop-Eleches, 2008. "General Education vs. Vocational Training: Evidence from an Economy in Transition," NBER Working Papers 14155, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Todd Pugatch, 2014. "Safety valve or sinkhole? Vocational schooling in South Africa," IZA Journal of Labor & Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 3(1), pages 1-31, December.
    3. Cantoni, Davide & Yuchtman, Noam, 2013. "The political economy of educational content and development: Lessons from history," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 233-244.
    4. Assaad, Ragui & Krafft, Caroline, 2015. "Is free basic education in Egypt a reality or a myth?," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 16-30.
    5. Fatma El-Hamidi, 2006. "General or Vocational Schooling? Evidence on School Choice, Returns, and 'Sheepskin' Effects from Egypt 1998," Journal of Economic Policy Reform, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(2), pages 157-176.
    6. Yana van der Meulen Rodgers & Joseph Zveglich & Laura Wherry, 2006. "Gender Differences In Vocational School Training And Earnings Premiums In Taiwan," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(4), pages 527-560.
    7. Kahyarara, Godius & Teal, Francis, 2008. "The Returns to Vocational Training and Academic Education: Evidence from Tanzania," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(11), pages 2223-2242, November.
    8. Hawley, Joshua D., 2004. "Changing returns to education in times of prosperity and crisis, Thailand 1985-1998," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 273-286, June.
    9. World Bank, 2001. "Thailand - Secondary Education for Employment (Vol. 2 of 2) : Background Papers," World Bank Other Operational Studies 15494, The World Bank.
    10. Fatma El-Hamidi, 2004. "General or Vocational? Evidence on School Choice, Returns, and “Sheep Skin” Effects from Egypt 1998," Working Papers 0406, Economic Research Forum, revised 01 Aug 2004.
    11. David Newhouse & Daniel Suryadarma, 2011. "The Value of Vocational Education: High School Type and Labor Market Outcomes in Indonesia," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 25(2), pages 296-322, May.
    12. Francis Teal & Godius Kahyarara, 2008. "The returns to vocational training and academic education: Evidence from Tanzania," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/2008-07, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    13. Alexandra Semrad, 2015. "Modern secondary education and economic performance: the introduction of the Gewerbeschule and Realschule in nineteenth-century Bavaria," Economic History Review, Economic History Society, vol. 68(4), pages 1306-1338, November.
    14. Uwaifo Oyelere, Ruth, 2008. "Understanding Low Average Returns to Education in Africa: The Role of Heterogeneity across Education Levels and the Importance of Political and Economic Reforms," IZA Discussion Papers 3766, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    15. Dario Pozzoli, 2007. "High Schools and Labour Market Outcomes: Italian Graduates," Giornale degli Economisti, GDE (Giornale degli Economisti e Annali di Economia), Bocconi University, vol. 66(2), pages 247-294, July.
    16. Zilic, Ivan, 2018. "General versus vocational education: Lessons from a quasi-experiment in Croatia," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 1-11.
    17. Eichhorst, Werner & Rodríguez-Planas, Núria & Schmidl, Ricarda & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2012. "A Roadmap to Vocational Education and Training Systems Around the World," IZA Discussion Papers 7110, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    18. Dearden, Lorraine, et al, 2002. "The Returns to Academic and Vocational Qualifications in Britain," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 54(3), pages 249-274, July.
    19. Francis Teal & Godius Kahyarara, 2006. "To train or to educate? Evidence from Tanzania," Economics Series Working Papers GPRG-WPS-051, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    20. Chris Sakellariou, 2005. "Profitability of Vocational vs. Formal Education for Men and Women in Singapore Using Quantile Regressions," Economic Growth Centre Working Paper Series 0502, Nanyang Technological University, School of Social Sciences, Economic Growth Centre.
    21. Mona Said & Fatma El-Hamidi, 2008. "Taking Technical Education Seriously in MENA: Determinants, Labor Market Implications and Policy Lessons," Working Papers 450, Economic Research Forum, revised 09 Jan 2008.

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