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A Roadmap to Vocational Education and Training Systems Around the World

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  • Eichhorst, Werner

    () (IZA)

  • Rodríguez-Planas, Núria

    () (Queens College, CUNY)

  • Schmidl, Ricarda

    () (University of Mannheim)

  • Zimmermann, Klaus F.

    (University of Bonn)

Abstract

With young people among the big losers of the recent financial crisis, vocational education and training (VET) is often seen as the silver bullet to the problem of youth joblessness. This paper provides a better understanding of VET around the world, dealing with three types of vocational systems: school-based education, a dual system in which school-based education is combined with firm-based training, and informal training. We first explore the motivation for these different types of training, before summarizing the institutional evidence, highlighting the key elements of each training system and discussing its main implementation strengths and challenges. We subsequently review the evidence on the effectiveness of VET versus general education and between the three VET systems. There are clear indications that VET is a valued alternative beyond the core of general education, while the dual system tends to be more effective than school-based VET. Informal training is effective, however relatively little is known of its relative strengths compared with other forms of vocational education.

Suggested Citation

  • Eichhorst, Werner & Rodríguez-Planas, Núria & Schmidl, Ricarda & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2012. "A Roadmap to Vocational Education and Training Systems Around the World," IZA Discussion Papers 7110, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp7110
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Pierre Cahuc & Stéphane Carcillo & Ulf Rinne & Klaus Zimmermann, 2013. "Youth unemployment in old Europe: the polar cases of France and Germany," IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 2(1), pages 1-23, December.
    2. Andrea Albanese & Lorenzo Cappellari & Marco Leonardi, 2017. "The Effects of Youth Labor Market Reforms: Evidence from Italian Apprenticeships," CESifo Working Paper Series 6481, CESifo Group Munich.
    3. Monica Parra-Torrado, 2014. "Youth Unemployment in the Caribbean," World Bank Other Operational Studies 18999, The World Bank.
    4. Thomas F. Remington & Israel Marques, 2014. "The Reform Of Skill Formation In Russia: Regional Responses," HSE Working papers WP BRP 19/PS/2014, National Research University Higher School of Economics.
    5. Werner Eichhorst, 2015. "Does vocational training help young people find a (good) job?," IZA World of Labor, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), pages 112-112, January.
    6. Robert Lerman, 2014. "Do firms benefit from apprenticeship investments?," IZA World of Labor, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), pages 1-55, May.
    7. Tani, Massimiliano, 2015. "Local Signals and the Returns to Foreign Education," IZA Discussion Papers 9597, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    8. repec:zbw:ijrvet:172018 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Floro Ernesto Caroleo & Elvira Ciociano & Sergio Destefanis, 2017. "The role of the education systems and the labour market institutions in enhancing youth employment: a cross-country analysis," Discussion Papers 1_2017, CRISEI, University of Naples "Parthenope", Italy.
    10. Polidano, Cain & Tabasso, Domenico, 2016. "Fully integrating upper-secondary vocational and academic courses: A flexible new way?," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 117-131.
    11. Robert Lerman, 2013. "Are employability skills learned in U.S. youth education and training programs?," IZA Journal of Labor Policy, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 2(1), pages 1-20, December.
    12. Thomas F. Remington, 2016. "Business-Government Cooperation in Vet: A Russian Experiment with Dual Education," HSE Working papers WP BRP 38/PS/2016, National Research University Higher School of Economics.
    13. Neugebauer, Martin & Weiss, Felix, 2017. "Does a Bachelor's degree pay off? Labor market outcomes of academic versus vocational education after Bologna," Discussion Papers 2017/11, Free University Berlin, School of Business & Economics.
    14. Werner Eichhorst & Núria Rodríguez-Planas & Ricarda Schmidl & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2015. "A Road Map to Vocational Education and Training in Industrialized Countries," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 68(2), pages 314-337, March.
    15. Brunello, Giorgio & Rocco, Lorenzo, 2015. "The Labour Market Effects of Academic and Vocational Education over the Life Cycle: Evidence from Two British Cohorts," IZA Discussion Papers 9275, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    16. Pieters, Janneke, 2013. "Report No. 58: Youth Employment in Developing Countries," IZA Research Reports 58, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    17. Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2013. "Reflexionen zur Zukunft der Arbeit," IZA Standpunkte 56, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    18. Maja Lamza-Maronic & Ivana Ivancic & Mira Majstorovic, 2014. "The Role Of Vocational Education And Training In The Youth Employability," Interdisciplinary Management Research, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Faculty of Economics, Croatia, vol. 10, pages 696-711.
    19. Horn, Dániel, 2014. "A szakiskolai tanoncképzés rövid távú munkaerő-piaci hatásai
      [The short-term labour-market effects of vocational apprenticeship training]
      ," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(9), pages 975-999.
    20. Janneke Pieters, 2015. "Youth Employment in Developing Countries," Working Papers id:7291, eSocialSciences.
    21. Biewen, Martin & Tapalaga, Madalina, 2017. "Life-cycle educational choices in a system with early tracking and ‘second chance’ options," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 80-94.
    22. Floreani, Vincent Arthur, 2014. "Fixing Europe's youth unemployment and skills mismatch, can public financial support to SMEs be effective? The case of the European Commission and European Investment Bank joint initiatives," MPRA Paper 55849, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    23. Rankin, Neil & Roberts, Gareth & Schoer, Volker, 2014. "The success of learnerships? Lessons from South Africa.s training and education programme," WIDER Working Paper Series 068, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    vocational education and training; informal training; dual VET;

    JEL classification:

    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • I25 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Economic Development
    • O17 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements

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