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Auctions vs. negotiations in takeovers with initial stakes

  • Loyola, Gino

Takeover attempts from raiders with prior stakes in the target company (toeholds) are frequent in the market for corporate control. In this context, we propose a simple and realistic selling mechanism with an agenda of exclusive negotiations that discriminates against larger-toehold raiders. When a reserve price is absent, it is shown that this negotiation procedure outperforms, in terms of expected target price, conventional auctions frequently used to model takeover battles. However, when standard auctions can be improved with an optimal reserve price, our results indicate that this target price superiority is sensitive to the degree of toehold asymmetry.

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Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Finance Research Letters.

Volume (Year): 9 (2012)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
Pages: 111-120

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Handle: RePEc:eee:finlet:v:9:y:2012:i:3:p:111-120
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/frl

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  1. Paul Klemperer & Jeremy Bulow, 1998. "Toeholds and Takeovers," Economics Series Working Papers 1998-W04, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  2. Bradley, Michael & Desai, Anand & Kim, E. Han, 1988. "Synergistic gains from corporate acquisitions and their division between the stockholders of target and acquiring firms," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 3-40, May.
  3. Rajdeep Singh, 1995. "Takeover Bidding with Toeholds: The Case of the Owner's Curse," Finance 9503001, EconWPA.
  4. Ettinger, David, 2009. "Takeover contests, toeholds and deterrence," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/5449, Paris Dauphine University.
  5. Betton, Sandra & Eckbo, B Espen, 2000. "Toeholds, Bid Jumps, and Expected Payoffs in Takeovers," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 13(4), pages 841-82.
  6. Burkart, Mike, 1995. " Initial Shareholdings and Overbidding in Takeover Contests," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(5), pages 1491-1515, December.
  7. Goldman, Eitan & Qian, Jun, 2005. "Optimal toeholds in takeover contests," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 321-346, August.
  8. Betton, Sandra & Eckbo, B. Espen & Thorburn, Karin S., 2009. "Merger negotiations and the toehold puzzle," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(2), pages 158-178, February.
  9. Jeremy Bulow & Paul Klemperer, 2009. "Why Do Sellers (Usually) Prefer Auctions?," Economics Papers 2009-W05, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
  10. Dasgupta, Sudipto & Tsui, Kevin, 2003. "A "matching auction" for targets with heterogeneous bidders," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 331-364, October.
  11. Cramton, Peter & Schwartz, Alan, 1991. "Using Auction Theory to Inform Takeover Regulation," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 7(1), pages 27-53, Spring.
  12. David ETTINGER, 2008. "Auctions and Shareholdings," Annales d'Economie et de Statistique, ENSAE, issue 90, pages 233-257.
  13. Paul Povel & Rajdeep Singh, 2006. "Takeover Contests with Asymmetric Bidders," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 19(4), pages 1399-1431.
  14. Audra L. Boone & J. Harold Mulherin, 2007. "How Are Firms Sold?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(2), pages 847-875, 04.
  15. Officer, Micah S., 2003. "Termination fees in mergers and acquisitions," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(3), pages 431-467, September.
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