IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/enepol/v98y2016icp621-628.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

How does Germany's green energy policy affect electricity market volatility? An application of conditional autoregressive range models

Author

Listed:
  • Auer, Benjamin R.

Abstract

Based on a dynamic model for the high/low range of electricity prices, this article analyses the effects of Germany's green energy policy on the volatility of the electricity market. Using European Energy Exchange data from 2000 to 2015, we find rather high volatility in the years 2000–2009 but also that the weekly price range has significantly declined in the period following the year 2009. This period is characterised by active regulation under the Energy Industry Law (EnWG), the EU Emissions Trading Directive (ETD) and the Renewable Energy Law (EEG). In contrast to the preceding period, price jumps are smaller and less frequent (especially for day-time hours), implying that current policy measures are effective in promoting renewable energies while simultaneously upholding electricity market stability. This is because the regulations strive towards a more and more flexible and market-oriented structure which allows better integration of renewable energies and supports an efficient alignment of renewable electricity supply with demand.

Suggested Citation

  • Auer, Benjamin R., 2016. "How does Germany's green energy policy affect electricity market volatility? An application of conditional autoregressive range models," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 621-628.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:98:y:2016:i:c:p:621-628
    DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2016.08.037
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421516304621
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Chan, Kam Fong & Gray, Philip & van Campen, Bart, 2008. "A new approach to characterizing and forecasting electricity price volatility," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 24(4), pages 728-743.
    2. Salisu, Afees A. & Fasanya, Ismail O., 2013. "Modelling oil price volatility with structural breaks," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 554-562.
    3. Haas, Reinhard & Lettner, Georg & Auer, Hans & Duic, Neven, 2013. "The looming revolution: How photovoltaics will change electricity markets in Europe fundamentally," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 38-43.
    4. Ray Chou & Chun-Chou Wu & Nathan Liu, 2009. "Forecasting time-varying covariance with a range-based dynamic conditional correlation model," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 33(4), pages 327-345, November.
    5. Cludius, Johanna & Hermann, Hauke & Matthes, Felix Chr. & Graichen, Verena, 2014. "The merit order effect of wind and photovoltaic electricity generation in Germany 2008–2016: Estimation and distributional implications," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 302-313.
    6. Knittel, Christopher R. & Roberts, Michael R., 2005. "An empirical examination of restructured electricity prices," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(5), pages 791-817, September.
    7. Anderson, Randy I. & Chen, Yi-Chi & Wang, Li-Min, 2015. "A range-based volatility approach to measuring volatility contagion in securitized real estate markets," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 223-235.
    8. Misiorek Adam & Trueck Stefan & Weron Rafal, 2006. "Point and Interval Forecasting of Spot Electricity Prices: Linear vs. Non-Linear Time Series Models," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 10(3), pages 1-36, September.
    9. Brian Lucey & Edel Tully, 2006. "Seasonality, risk and return in daily COMEX gold and silver data 1982-2002," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(4), pages 319-333.
    10. Baur, Dirk G. & McDermott, Thomas K., 2010. "Is gold a safe haven? International evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1886-1898, August.
    11. Würzburg, Klaas & Labandeira, Xavier & Linares, Pedro, 2013. "Renewable generation and electricity prices: Taking stock and new evidence for Germany and Austria," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(S1), pages 159-171.
    12. Langni, Ole & Diekmann, Jochen & Lehr, Ulrike, 2009. "Advanced mechanisms for the promotion of renewable energy--Models for the future evolution of the German Renewable Energy Act," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 1289-1297, April.
    13. Smyth, Russell & Narayan, Paresh Kumar, 2015. "Applied econometrics and implications for energy economics research," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 351-358.
    14. Diongue, Abdou Kâ & Guégan, Dominique & Vignal, Bertrand, 2009. "Forecasting electricity spot market prices with a k-factor GIGARCH process," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 86(4), pages 505-510, April.
    15. Perdan, Slobodan & Azapagic, Adisa, 2011. "Carbon trading: Current schemes and future developments," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(10), pages 6040-6054, October.
    16. Dirk G. Baur & Brian M. Lucey, 2010. "Is Gold a Hedge or a Safe Haven? An Analysis of Stocks, Bonds and Gold," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 45(2), pages 217-229, May.
    17. Lehmann, Paul & Gawel, Erik, 2013. "Why should support schemes for renewable electricity complement the EU emissions trading scheme?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 597-607.
    18. Chou, Ray Yeutien & Cai, Yijie, 2009. "Range-based multivariate volatility model with double smooth transition in conditional correlation," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 137-152.
    19. Jeremy Berkowitz & Peter Christoffersen & Denis Pelletier, 2011. "Evaluating Value-at-Risk Models with Desk-Level Data," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 57(12), pages 2213-2227, December.
    20. Ketterer, Janina C., 2014. "The impact of wind power generation on the electricity price in Germany," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 270-280.
    21. Narayan, Paresh Kumar & Liu, Ruipeng, 2015. "A unit root model for trending time-series energy variables," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 391-402.
    22. de Jong, Frank & Kemna, Angelien & Kloek, Teun, 1992. "A contribution to event study methodology with an application to the Dutch stock market," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 11-36, February.
    23. van Asselt, Harro & Biermann, Frank, 2007. "European emissions trading and the international competitiveness of energy-intensive industries: a legal and political evaluation of possible supporting measures," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 497-506, January.
    24. Schaber, Katrin & Steinke, Florian & Hamacher, Thomas, 2012. "Transmission grid extensions for the integration of variable renewable energies in Europe: Who benefits where?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 123-135.
    25. Alvaro Cartea & Marcelo Figueroa, 2005. "Pricing in Electricity Markets: A Mean Reverting Jump Diffusion Model with Seasonality," Applied Mathematical Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(4), pages 313-335.
    26. Andersen, Torben G & Bollerslev, Tim, 1998. "Answering the Skeptics: Yes, Standard Volatility Models Do Provide Accurate Forecasts," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 39(4), pages 885-905, November.
    27. Narayan, Paresh Kumar & Sharma, Susan Sunila, 2015. "Does data frequency matter for the impact of forward premium on spot exchange rate?," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 45-53.
    28. Robert F. Engle & Simone Manganelli, 2004. "CAViaR: Conditional Autoregressive Value at Risk by Regression Quantiles," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 22, pages 367-381, October.
    29. Nowotarski, Jakub & Raviv, Eran & Trück, Stefan & Weron, Rafał, 2014. "An empirical comparison of alternative schemes for combining electricity spot price forecasts," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 395-412.
    30. Junsoo Lee & Mark C. Strazicich, 2003. "Minimum Lagrange Multiplier Unit Root Test with Two Structural Breaks," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 1082-1089, November.
    31. Weron, Rafał, 2014. "Electricity price forecasting: A review of the state-of-the-art with a look into the future," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 1030-1081.
    32. Beckers, Stan, 1983. "Variances of Security Price Returns Based on High, Low, and Closing Prices," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 56(1), pages 97-112, January.
    33. Tan, Zhongfu & Zhang, Jinliang & Wang, Jianhui & Xu, Jun, 2010. "Day-ahead electricity price forecasting using wavelet transform combined with ARIMA and GARCH models," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(11), pages 3606-3610, November.
    34. Connolly, Robert A., 1989. "An Examination of the Robustness of the Weekend Effect," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 24(02), pages 133-169, June.
    35. Bollerslev, Tim, 1986. "Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 307-327, April.
    36. Do, Linh Phuong Catherine & Lin, Kuan-Heng & Molnár, Peter, 2016. "Electricity consumption modelling: A case of Germany," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 92-101.
    37. Parkinson, Michael, 1980. "The Extreme Value Method for Estimating the Variance of the Rate of Return," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 53(1), pages 61-65, January.
    38. Lehr, Ulrike & Nitsch, Joachim & Kratzat, Marlene & Lutz, Christian & Edler, Dietmar, 2008. "Renewable energy and employment in Germany," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 108-117, January.
    39. Robert F. Engle & Jeffrey R. Russell, 1998. "Autoregressive Conditional Duration: A New Model for Irregularly Spaced Transaction Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(5), pages 1127-1162, September.
    40. Smyth, Russell, 2013. "Are fluctuations in energy variables permanent or transitory? A survey of the literature on the integration properties of energy consumption and production," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 371-378.
    41. Kumar, Dilip, 2015. "Sudden changes in extreme value volatility estimator: Modeling and forecasting with economic significance analysis," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 354-371.
    42. Chou, Ray Yeutien, 2005. "Forecasting Financial Volatilities with Extreme Values: The Conditional Autoregressive Range (CARR) Model," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 37(3), pages 561-582, June.
    43. Paresh Kumar Narayan & Stephan Popp, 2013. "Size and power properties of structural break unit root tests," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(6), pages 721-728, February.
    44. Tang, Chor Foon & Tan, Bee Wah & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2016. "Energy consumption and economic growth in Vietnam," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 1506-1514.
    45. Sensfuß, Frank & Ragwitz, Mario & Genoese, Massimo, 2008. "The merit-order effect: A detailed analysis of the price effect of renewable electricity generation on spot market prices in Germany," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 3076-3084, August.
    46. Gianfreda, Angelica & Grossi, Luigi, 2012. "Forecasting Italian electricity zonal prices with exogenous variables," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 2228-2239.
    47. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2010. "Structural breaks and petroleum consumption in US states: Are shocks transitory or permanent?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(10), pages 6375-6378, October.
    48. Perron, Pierre, 1997. "Further evidence on breaking trend functions in macroeconomic variables," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 80(2), pages 355-385, October.
    49. Janczura, Joanna & Weron, Rafal, 2010. "An empirical comparison of alternate regime-switching models for electricity spot prices," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 1059-1073, September.
    50. Frondel, Manuel & Ritter, Nolan & Schmidt, Christoph M. & Vance, Colin, 2010. "Economic impacts from the promotion of renewable energy technologies: The German experience," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(8), pages 4048-4056, August.
    51. Nelson, Daniel B, 1991. "Conditional Heteroskedasticity in Asset Returns: A New Approach," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(2), pages 347-370, March.
    52. Chou, Ray Yeutien & Liu, Nathan, 2010. "The economic value of volatility timing using a range-based volatility model," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 34(11), pages 2288-2301, November.
    53. Gawel, Erik & Purkus, Alexandra, 2013. "Promoting the market and system integration of renewable energies through premium schemes: A case study of the German market premium," UFZ Discussion Papers 4/2013, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ), Division of Social Sciences (ÖKUS).
    54. Lean, Hooi Hooi & Smyth, Russell, 2014. "Disaggregated energy demand by fuel type and economic growth in Malaysia," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 132(C), pages 168-177.
    55. Mandelbrot, Benoit B, 1971. "When Can Price Be Arbitraged Efficiently? A Limit to the Validity of the Random Walk and Martingale Models," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 53(3), pages 225-236, August.
    56. José Luis Miralles-Marcelo & José Luis Miralles-Quirós & María del Mar Miralles-Quirós, 2013. "Improving the CARR model using extreme range estimators," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(21), pages 1635-1647, November.
    57. Robert Engle, 2002. "New frontiers for arch models," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(5), pages 425-446.
    58. Bierbrauer, Michael & Menn, Christian & Rachev, Svetlozar T. & Truck, Stefan, 2007. "Spot and derivative pricing in the EEX power market," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(11), pages 3462-3485, November.
    59. Ventosa, Mariano & Baillo, Alvaro & Ramos, Andres & Rivier, Michel, 2005. "Electricity market modeling trends," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(7), pages 897-913, May.
    60. Paul L. Joskow, 2001. "California's Electricity Crisis," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 17(3), pages 365-388.
    61. Zhang, Yue-Jun & Wei, Yi-Ming, 2010. "An overview of current research on EU ETS: Evidence from its operating mechanism and economic effect," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(6), pages 1804-1814, June.
    62. Traber, Thure & Kemfert, Claudia, 2011. "Gone with the wind? -- Electricity market prices and incentives to invest in thermal power plants under increasing wind energy supply," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 249-256, March.
    63. Robin L. Lumsdaine & David H. Papell, 1997. "Multiple Trend Breaks And The Unit-Root Hypothesis," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(2), pages 212-218, May.
    64. Ernst R. Berndt & Bronwyn H. Hall & Robert E. Hall & Jerry A. Hausman, 1974. "Estimation and Inference in Nonlinear Structural Models," NBER Chapters,in: Annals of Economic and Social Measurement, Volume 3, number 4, pages 653-665 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    65. Karakatsani Nektaria V & Bunn Derek W., 2010. "Fundamental and Behavioural Drivers of Electricity Price Volatility," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 14(4), pages 1-42, September.
    66. Paresh Kumar Narayan & Stephan Popp, 2010. "A new unit root test with two structural breaks in level and slope at unknown time," Journal of Applied Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(9), pages 1425-1438.
    67. Ziggel, Daniel & Berens, Tobias & Weiß, Gregor N.F. & Wied, Dominik, 2014. "A new set of improved Value-at-Risk backtests," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 29-41.
    68. Jan Seifert & Marliese Uhrig-Homburg, 2007. "Modelling jumps in electricity prices: theory and empirical evidence," Review of Derivatives Research, Springer, vol. 10(1), pages 59-85, January.
    69. Hooi Hooi Lean & Russell Smyth, 2015. "Testing for weak-form efficiency of crude palm oil spot and future markets: new evidence from a GARCH unit root test with multiple structural breaks," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(16), pages 1710-1721, April.
    70. Tully, Edel & Lucey, Brian M., 2007. "A power GARCH examination of the gold market," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 316-325, June.
    71. Lion Hirth, 2013. "The Market Value of Variable Renewables. The Effect of Solar and Wind Power Variability on their Relative Price," RSCAS Working Papers 2013/36, European University Institute.
    72. Pourazarm, Elham & Cooray, Arusha, 2013. "Estimating and forecasting residential electricity demand in Iran," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 546-558.
    73. Narayan, Paresh Kumar & Narayan, Seema, 2007. "Modelling oil price volatility," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(12), pages 6549-6553, December.
    74. Brandt, Michael W. & Jones, Christopher S., 2006. "Volatility Forecasting With Range-Based EGARCH Models," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 24, pages 470-486, October.
    75. Vandezande, Leen & Meeus, Leonardo & Belmans, Ronnie & Saguan, Marcelo & Glachant, Jean-Michel, 2010. "Well-functioning balancing markets: A prerequisite for wind power integration," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(7), pages 3146-3154, July.
    76. Mitchell, C. & Bauknecht, D. & Connor, P.M., 2006. "Effectiveness through risk reduction: a comparison of the renewable obligation in England and Wales and the feed-in system in Germany," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 297-305, February.
    77. Hillebrand, Bernhard & Buttermann, Hans Georg & Behringer, Jean Marc & Bleuel, Michaela, 2006. "The expansion of renewable energies and employment effects in Germany," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(18), pages 3484-3494, December.
    78. Lester Hadsell, Achla Marathe and Hany A. Shawky, 2004. "Estimating the Volatility of Wholesale Electricity Spot Prices in the US," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4), pages 23-40.
    79. Mishra, Vinod & Smyth, Russell, 2014. "Is monthly US natural gas consumption stationary? New evidence from a GARCH unit root test with structural breaks," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 258-262.
    80. repec:hal:journl:halshs-00307606 is not listed on IDEAS
    81. Brandstätt, Christine & Brunekreeft, Gert & Jahnke, Katy, 2011. "How to deal with negative power price spikes?--Flexible voluntary curtailment agreements for large-scale integration of wind," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 3732-3740, June.
    82. Paresh Kumar Narayan & Huson Ali Ahmed & Seema Narayan, 2015. "Do Momentum‐Based Trading Strategies Work in the Commodity Futures Markets?," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 35(9), pages 868-891, September.
    83. Rafal Weron, 2006. "Modeling and Forecasting Electricity Loads and Prices: A Statistical Approach," HSC Books, Hugo Steinhaus Center, Wroclaw University of Technology, number hsbook0601.
    84. Dillig, Marius & Jung, Manuel & Karl, Jürgen, 2016. "The impact of renewables on electricity prices in Germany – An estimation based on historic spot prices in the years 2011–2013," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 7-15.
    85. Kosater, Peter & Mosler, Karl, 2006. "Can Markov regime-switching models improve power-price forecasts? Evidence from German daily power prices," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 83(9), pages 943-958, September.
    86. Gawel, Erik & Purkus, Alexandra, 2013. "Promoting the market and system integration of renewable energies through premium schemes—A case study of the German market premium," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 599-609.
    87. Wustenhagen, Rolf & Bilharz, Michael, 2006. "Green energy market development in Germany: effective public policy and emerging customer demand," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(13), pages 1681-1696, September.
    88. Cai, Yijie & Chou, Ray Yeutien & Li, Dan, 2009. "Explaining international stock correlations with CPI fluctuations and market volatility," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(11), pages 2026-2035, November.
    89. Rogge, Karoline S. & Schneider, Malte & Hoffmann, Volker H., 2011. "The innovation impact of the EU Emission Trading System -- Findings of company case studies in the German power sector," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(3), pages 513-523, January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:enepol:v:109:y:2017:i:c:p:297-309 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    German energy policy; Electricity markets; EEX data; CARR modelling;

    JEL classification:

    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • Q41 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Demand and Supply; Prices
    • Q48 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Government Policy

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:98:y:2016:i:c:p:621-628. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.