Analysis of CO2 emissions reduction in the Malaysian transportation sector: An optimisation approach
The demand for transport services is expected to rise, causing the CO2 emissions level to increase as well. In Malaysia, the transportation sector accounts for 28% of total CO2 emissions, of which 85% comes from road transport. By 2020, Malaysia is targeting a reduction in CO2 emissions intensity by up to 40% and in this effort the role of road transport is paramount. This paper attempts to investigate effective policy options that can assist Malaysia in reducing the CO2 emissions level. An Optimisation model is developed to estimate the potential CO2 emissions mitigation strategies for road transport by minimising the CO2 emissions under the constraint of fuel cost and demand travel. Several mitigation strategies have been applied to analyse the effect of CO2 emissions reduction potential. The results demonstrate that removal of fuel price subsidies can result in reductions of up to 652ktonnes of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions can be decreased by 6.55%, which would enable Malaysia to hit its target by 2020. CO2 emissions can be reduced significantly, up to 20%, by employing a combination of mitigation policies in Malaysia. This suggests that appropriate mitigation policies can assist the country in its quest to achieve the CO2 emissions reduction target.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Zanni, Alberto M. & Bristow, Abigail L., 2010. "Emissions of CO2 from road freight transport in London: Trends and policies for long run reductions," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 1774-1786, April.
- Ediger, Volkan S. & Akar, Sertac, 2007. "ARIMA forecasting of primary energy demand by fuel in Turkey," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 1701-1708, March.
- Bai, Hsunling & Wei, Jong-Hourm, 1996. "The CO2 mitigation options for the electric sector. A case study of Taiwan," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 221-228, March.
- Ou, Xunmin & Zhang, Xiliang & Chang, Shiyan, 2010. "Scenario analysis on alternative fuel/vehicle for China's future road transport: Life-cycle energy demand and GHG emissions," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(8), pages 3943-3956, August.
- Pongthanaisawan, Jakapong & Sorapipatana, Chumnong, 2013. "Greenhouse gas emissions from Thailand’s transport sector: Trends and mitigation options," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 288-298.
- Johansson, Bengt, 2009. "Will restrictions on CO2 emissions require reductions in transport demand?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 3212-3220, August.
- Timilsina, Govinda R. & Shrestha, Ashish, 2009. "Transport sector CO2 emissions growth in Asia: Underlying factors and policy options," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 4523-4539, November.
- Baños, R. & Manzano-Agugliaro, F. & Montoya, F.G. & Gil, C. & Alcayde, A. & Gómez, J., 2011. "Optimization methods applied to renewable and sustainable energy: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 1753-1766, May.
- Yan, Xiaoyu & Crookes, Roy J., 2009. "Reduction potentials of energy demand and GHG emissions in China's road transport sector," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 658-668, February.
- Linares, Pedro & Romero, Carlos, 2002. "Aggregation of preferences in an environmental economics context: a goal-programming approach," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 89-95, April.
- Lim, Steven & Lee, Keat Teong, 2012. "Implementation of biofuels in Malaysian transportation sector towards sustainable development: A case study of international cooperation between Malaysia and Japan," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 1790-1800.
- Ren, Hongbo & Zhou, Weisheng & Nakagami, Ken'ichi & Gao, Weijun & Wu, Qiong, 2010. "Multi-objective optimization for the operation of distributed energy systems considering economic and environmental aspects," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(12), pages 3642-3651, December.
- Muis, Z.A. & Hashim, H. & Manan, Z.A. & Taha, F.M. & Douglas, P.L., 2010. "Optimal planning of renewable energy-integrated electricity generation schemes with CO2 reduction target," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(11), pages 2562-2570.
- Ichinohe, Masayuki & Endo, Eiichi, 2006. "Analysis of the vehicle mix in the passenger-car sector in Japan for CO2 emissions reduction by a MARKAL model," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 83(10), pages 1047-1061, October.
- Hickman, Robin & Ashiru, Olu & Banister, David, 2010. "Transport and climate change: Simulating the options for carbon reduction in London," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 110-125, March.
- Dargay, Joyce & Gately, Dermot, 1999. "Income's effect on car and vehicle ownership, worldwide: 1960-2015," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 101-138, February.
- Pan, Shenle & Ballot, Eric & Fontane, Frédéric, 2013. "The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from freight transport by pooling supply chains," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 143(1), pages 86-94.
- Marrero, Gustavo A., 2010. "Greenhouse gases emissions, growth and the energy mix in Europe," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1356-1363, November.
- Piecyk, Maja I. & McKinnon, Alan C., 2010. "Forecasting the carbon footprint of road freight transport in 2020," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 128(1), pages 31-42, November.
- Ashina, Shuichi & Fujino, Junichi & Masui, Toshihiko & Ehara, Tomoki & Hibino, Go, 2012. "A roadmap towards a low-carbon society in Japan using backcasting methodology: Feasible pathways for achieving an 80% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 584-598.
- Silitonga, A.S. & Atabani, A.E. & Mahlia, T.M.I., 2012. "Review on fuel economy standard and label for vehicle in selected ASEAN countries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 1683-1695.
- Gielen, Dolf & Changhong, Chen, 2001. "The CO2 emission reduction benefits of Chinese energy policies and environmental policies:: A case study for Shanghai, period 1995-2020," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 257-270, November.
- Pasaoglu, Guzay & Honselaar, Michel & Thiel, Christian, 2012. "Potential vehicle fleet CO2 reductions and cost implications for various vehicle technology deployment scenarios in Europe," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 404-421.
- Kannan, Ramachandran & Strachan, Neil, 2009. "Modelling the UK residential energy sector under long-term decarbonisation scenarios: Comparison between energy systems and sectoral modelling approaches," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 86(4), pages 416-428, April.
- Ong, H.C. & Mahlia, T.M.I. & Masjuki, H.H., 2011. "A review on emissions and mitigation strategies for road transport in Malaysia," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(8), pages 3516-3522.
- Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan & Wahid, Mazlan Abdul & Aghili, Nasim, 2013. "The scenario of greenhouse gases reduction in Malaysia," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 400-409.
- Hussain Ali Bekhet & Lee Lian Ivy-Yap, 2014. "Highlighting Energy Policies and Strategies for the Residential Sector in Malaysia," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 4(3), pages 448-456.
- Wang, S.S. & Zhou, D.Q. & Zhou, P. & Wang, Q.W., 2011. "CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in China: A panel data analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 4870-4875, September.
- Leighty, Wayne & Ogden, Joan M. & Yang, Christopher, 2012. "Modeling transitions in the California light-duty vehicles sector to achieve deep reductions in transportation greenhouse gas emissions," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 52-67.
- Erdmenger, Christoph & Lehmann, Harry & Müschen, Klaus & Tambke, Jens & Mayr, Sebastian & Kuhnhenn, Kai, 2009. "A climate protection strategy for Germany--40% reduction of CO2 emissions by 2020 compared to 1990," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 158-165, January.
- Ziolkowska, Jadwiga R., 2014. "Optimizing biofuels production in an uncertain decision environment: Conventional vs. advanced technologies," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 114(C), pages 366-376.
- Herring, Horace, 2006. "Energy efficiency—a critical view," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 10-20.
- Begum, Rawshan Ara & Sohag, Kazi & Abdullah, Sharifah Mastura Syed & Jaafar, Mokhtar, 2015. "CO2 emissions, energy consumption, economic and population growth in Malaysia," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 594-601.
- Mattila, Tuomas & Antikainen, Riina, 2011. "Backcasting sustainable freight transport systems for Europe in 2050," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 1241-1248, March.
- Oliver Gao, H. & Stasko, Timon H., 2009. "Diversification in the driveway: mean-variance optimization for greenhouse gas emissions reduction from the next generation of vehicles," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 5019-5027, December.
- Tye, Ying Ying & Lee, Keat Teong & Wan Abdullah, Wan Nadiah & Leh, Cheu Peng, 2011. "Second-generation bioethanol as a sustainable energy source in Malaysia transportation sector: Status, potential and future prospects," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(9), pages 4521-4536.
- Klier, Thomas & Linn, Joshua, 2013. "Fuel prices and new vehicle fuel economy—Comparing the United States and Western Europe," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 66(2), pages 280-300.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:89:y:2016:i:c:p:171-183. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.