The impacts of transport energy consumption, foreign direct investment and income on CO2 emissions in ASEAN-5 economies
In this study, we incorporate new variables and assess the impact of transportation sector's energy consumption and foreign direct investment on CO2 emissions for ASEAN-5 economies using the cointegration and Granger causality methods. This study also attempts to validate the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. Our results reveal that the CO2 emissions and their determinants are co-integrated only in Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. The long-run elasticity estimation suggests that income and transport energy consumption significantly influence CO2 emissions whereas FDI is not significant. Economic growth plays a greater role in contributing to CO2 emission in ASEAN-5. Nonetheless, we find that the inverted U-shape EKC hypothesis is not applicable to the ASEAN-5 economies, especially in Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. In the long run, the bi-directional causality between economic growth and CO2 emissions is detected in Indonesia and Thailand, while we find unidirectional causality running from GDP to CO2 emissions in Malaysia. We also observe bi-directional causality between transport energy consumption, FDI and CO2 emissions in Thailand and Malaysia. As an immediate policy option, controlling energy consumption in transportation sector may result in a significant reduction in CO2 emissions. However, this may slow the process of economic growth in Malaysia and Indonesia. Alternatively, we suggest policymakers to place more emphasis on energy efficient transportation system and policies to minimise fossil fuel consumption. Thus, the quality of environment can be improved with less deleterious impact on economic growth.
Volume (Year): 24 (2013)
Issue (Month): C ()
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/600126/description#description|
|Order Information:|| Postal: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/600126/bibliographic|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- James G. MacKinnon & Alfred A. Haug & Leo Michelis, 1996.
"Numerical Distribution Functions of Likelihood Ratio Tests for Cointegration,"
1996_07, York University, Department of Economics.
- MacKinnon, James G & Haug, Alfred A & Michelis, Leo, 1999. "Numerical Distribution Functions of Likelihood Ratio Tests for Cointegration," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(5), pages 563-77, Sept.-Oct.
- Mackinnon, J.G. & Haug, A.A. & Michelis, L., 1996. "Numerical Distribution Functions of Likelihood Ratio Tests for Cointegration," G.R.E.Q.A.M. 96a09, Universite Aix-Marseille III.
- Peter C. B. Phillips & Bruce E. Hansen, 1990. "Statistical Inference in Instrumental Variables Regression with I(1) Processes," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 57(1), pages 99-125.
- Masih, Abul M. M. & Masih, Rumi, 1999. "Are Asian stock market fluctuations due mainly to intra-regional contagion effects? Evidence based on Asian emerging stock markets," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 7(3-4), pages 251-282, August.
- Engle, Robert F & Granger, Clive W J, 1987.
"Co-integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing,"
Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 251-76, March.
- Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015. "Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
- Tang, Chor Foon, 2008. "A re-examination of the relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth in Malaysia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 3067-3075, August.
- Joyce Dargay & Dermot Gately & Martin Sommer, 2007. "Vehicle Ownership and Income Growth, Worldwide: 1960-2030," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4), pages 143-170.
- Bossaerts, Peter, 1988. "Common nonstationary components of asset prices," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 347-364.
- Bardsen, Gunnar, 1989. "Estimation of Long Run Coefficients in Error Correction Models," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 51(3), pages 345-50, August.
- Atici, Cemal, 2012. "Carbon emissions, trade liberalization, and the Japan–ASEAN interaction: A group-wise examination," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 167-178.
- Ang, James B., 2007. "CO2 emissions, energy consumption, and output in France," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 4772-4778, October.
- Granger, C. W. J., 1988. "Some recent development in a concept of causality," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1-2), pages 199-211.
- Pesaran, M.H. & Smith, R., 1992.
"Estimating Long-Run Relationships From Dynamic Heterogeneous Panels,"
Cambridge Working Papers in Economics
9215, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Pesaran, M. Hashem & Smith, Ron, 1995. "Estimating long-run relationships from dynamic heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 79-113, July.
- List, John A. & Gallet, Craig A., 1999. "The environmental Kuznets curve: does one size fit all?," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 409-423, December.
- Donald Robertson & James Symons, 1991.
"Some Strange Properties of Panel Data Estimators,"
CEP Discussion Papers
dp0044, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Hatzigeorgiou, Emmanouil & Polatidis, Heracles & Haralambopoulos, Dias, 2011. "CO2 emissions, GDP and energy intensity: A multivariate cointegration and causality analysis for Greece, 1977-2007," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(4), pages 1377-1385, April.
- Jie HE, 2005.
"Pollution haven hypothesis and Environmental impacts of foreign direct investment: The Case of Industrial Emission of Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) in Chinese provinces,"
- He, Jie, 2006. "Pollution haven hypothesis and environmental impacts of foreign direct investment: The case of industrial emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Chinese provinces," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 228-245, November.
- Graham Elliott & Thomas J. Rothenberg & James H. Stock, 1992.
"Efficient Tests for an Autoregressive Unit Root,"
NBER Technical Working Papers
0130, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Chandran, V.G.R. & Sharma, Susan & Madhavan, Karunagaran, 2010. "Electricity consumption-growth nexus: The case of Malaysia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 606-612, January.
- Karki, Shankar K. & Mann, Michael D. & Salehfar, Hossein, 2005. "Energy and environment in the ASEAN: challenges and opportunities," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 499-509, March.
- Stock, James H & Watson, Mark W, 1993.
"A Simple Estimator of Cointegrating Vectors in Higher Order Integrated Systems,"
Econometric Society, vol. 61(4), pages 783-820, July.
- James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson, 1991. "A simple estimator of cointegrating vectors in higher order integrated systems," Working Paper Series, Macroeconomic Issues 91-3, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Tom Doan, . "SWDOLS: RATS procedure to estimate cointegrating vectors using dynamic OLS," Statistical Software Components RTS00207, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Gonzalo, Jesus, 1994. "Five alternative methods of estimating long-run equilibrium relationships," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1-2), pages 203-233.
- Tsangyao Chang & Wenshwo Fang & Li-Fang Wen, 2001. "Energy consumption, employment, output, and temporal causality: evidence from Taiwan based on cointegration and error-correction modelling techniques," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(8), pages 1045-1056.
- Dinda, Soumyananda & Coondoo, Dipankor & Pal, Manoranjan, 2000. "Air quality and economic growth: an empirical study," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 409-423, September.
- Johansen, S., 1991.
"Determination of Cointegration Rank in the Presence of a Linear Trend,"
76a, Helsinki - Department of Economics.
- Johansen, Soren, 1992. "Determination of Cointegration Rank in the Presence of a Linear Trend," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 54(3), pages 383-97, August.
- Ang, James B., 2008. "Economic development, pollutant emissions and energy consumption in Malaysia," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 271-278.
- Bloch, Harry & Rafiq, Shuddhasattwa & Salim, Ruhul, 2012. "Coal consumption, CO2 emission and economic growth in China: Empirical evidence and policy responses," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 518-528.
- Stock, James H, 1987. "Asymptotic Properties of Least Squares Estimators of Cointegrating Vectors," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(5), pages 1035-56, September.
- Chang, Ching-Chih, 2010. "A multivariate causality test of carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in China," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(11), pages 3533-3537, November.
- Pantula, Sastry G., 1989. "Testing for Unit Roots in Time Series Data," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 5(02), pages 256-271, August.
- Hooi Hooi Lean & Russell Smyth, 2009.
"Co2 Emissions, Electricity Consumption And Output In Asean,"
Development Research Unit Working Paper Series
13-09, Monash University, Department of Economics.
- Lean, Hooi Hooi & Smyth, Russell, 2010. "CO2 emissions, electricity consumption and output in ASEAN," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(6), pages 1858-1864, June.
- Timilsina, Govinda R. & Shrestha, Ashish, 2009. "Transport sector CO2 emissions growth in Asia: Underlying factors and policy options," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 4523-4539, November.
- Wang, Kuan-Min, 2012. "Modelling the nonlinear relationship between CO2 emissions from oil and economic growth," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 1537-1547.
- Zhang, Yue-Jun, 2011.
"The impact of financial development on carbon emissions: An empirical analysis in China,"
Elsevier, vol. 39(4), pages 2197-2203, April.
- Yue-Jun Zhang, 2010. "The impact of financial development on carbon emissions: an empirical analysis in China," CEEP-BIT Working Papers 8, Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research (CEEP), Beijing Institute of Technology.
- Zeng, Ka & Eastin, Joshua, 2012. "Do Developing Countries Invest Up? The Environmental Effects of Foreign Direct Investment from Less-Developed Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(11), pages 2221-2233.
- Halicioglu, Ferda, 2008.
"An econometric study of CO2 emissions, energy consumption, income and foreign trade in Turkey,"
11457, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Halicioglu, Ferda, 2009. "An econometric study of CO2 emissions, energy consumption, income and foreign trade in Turkey," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 1156-1164, March.
- Robert J. R. Elliott & Kenichi Shimamoto, 2008. "Are ASEAN Countries Havens for Japanese Pollution-Intensive Industry?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(2), pages 236-254, 02.
- Ghosh, Sajal, 2010. "Examining carbon emissions economic growth nexus for India: A multivariate cointegration approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(6), pages 3008-3014, June.
- Wang, S.S. & Zhou, D.Q. & Zhou, P. & Wang, Q.W., 2011. "CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in China: A panel data analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 4870-4875, September.
- Chor Foon Tang, 2009. "Electricity consumption, income, foreign direct investment, and population in Malaysia: New evidence from multivariate framework analysis," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 36(4), pages 371-382, September.
- Fatai, K & Oxley, Les & Scrimgeour, F.G, 2004. "Modelling the causal relationship between energy consumption and GDP in New Zealand, Australia, India, Indonesia, The Philippines and Thailand," Mathematics and Computers in Simulation (MATCOM), Elsevier, vol. 64(3), pages 431-445.
- Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
- P Ekins, 1997. "The Kuznets Curve for the Environment and Economic Growth: Examining the Evidence," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 29(5), pages 805-830, May.
- Niu, Shuwen & Ding, Yongxia & Niu, Yunzhu & Li, Yixin & Luo, Guanghua, 2011. "Economic growth, energy conservation and emissions reduction: A comparative analysis based on panel data for 8 Asian-Pacific countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(4), pages 2121-2131, April.
- Tilak Abeysinghe & Tan Khay Boon, 1999. "Small sample estimation of a cointegrating vector: an empirical evaluation of six estimation techniques," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(10), pages 645-648.
- Letchumanan, Raman & Kodama, Fumio, 2000. "Reconciling the conflict between the 'pollution-haven' hypothesis and an emerging trajectory of international technology transfer," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 59-79, January.
- Johansen, Soren, 1995. "Likelihood-Based Inference in Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive Models," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198774501, June.
- Moomaw, William R. & Unruh, Gregory C., 1997. "Are environmental Kuznets curves misleading us? The case of CO2 emissions," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 2(04), pages 451-463, November.
- Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2009. "CO2 emissions, energy usage, and output in Central America," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 3282-3286, August.
- P Ekins, 1997. "The Kuznets curve for the environment and economic growth: examining the evidence," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 29(5), pages 805-830, May.
- Lee, Chien-Chiang & Lee, Jun-De, 2009. "Income and CO2 emissions: Evidence from panel unit root and cointegration tests," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 413-423, February.
- Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
- Kearsley, Aaron & Riddel, Mary, 2010. "A further inquiry into the Pollution Haven Hypothesis and the Environmental Kuznets Curve," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(4), pages 905-919, February.
- Kaufmann, Robert K. & Davidsdottir, Brynhildur & Garnham, Sophie & Pauly, Peter, 1998. "The determinants of atmospheric SO2 concentrations: reconsidering the environmental Kuznets curve," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 209-220, May.
- Narayan, Paresh Kumar & Narayan, Seema, 2010. "Carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth: Panel data evidence from developing countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 661-666, January.
- Acaravci, Ali & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2010. "On the relationship between energy consumption, CO2 emissions and economic growth in Europe," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(12), pages 5412-5420.
- Cole, Matthew A., 2004. "Trade, the pollution haven hypothesis and the environmental Kuznets curve: examining the linkages," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 71-81, January.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:24:y:2013:i:c:p:445-453. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.