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A review on emissions and mitigation strategies for road transport in Malaysia


  • Ong, H.C.
  • Mahlia, T.M.I.
  • Masjuki, H.H.


The emissions from road transport are serious threats to urban air quality and global warming. The first step to develop effective policies is to determine the source and amount of emissions produced. This paper attempts to review emissions from road transport using COPERT 4 model and examined possible emission mitigation strategies. In road transport, results have show that passenger cars are the main cause of CO2, N2O and CO emissions, while motorcycles are main source of hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. However, light duty vehicles and heavy duty vehicles are the main contribution of particulate matters. The total CO2 equivalent emissions for road transport in Malaysia are 59,383.51ktonnes for year 2007. Further results show that CO2 emission is the primary source of greenhouse gas pollution which is 71% of the total CO2 equivalent. A parametric study was conducted to estimate the potential emission mitigation strategies for road transport by taking the emissions in 2007 as a reference year. It was observed that promoting the public transport is an effective strategy to reduce emissions and fuel consumption from the technical view point. It can totally save up to 1044ktonnes of fuel consumption and total CO2 equivalents emissions can be decreased by 7%. It was noted that, fleet renewal and promoting natural gas vehicles will significantly contribute in the reduction of emissions in Malaysia.

Suggested Citation

  • Ong, H.C. & Mahlia, T.M.I. & Masjuki, H.H., 2011. "A review on emissions and mitigation strategies for road transport in Malaysia," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(8), pages 3516-3522.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:15:y:2011:i:8:p:3516-3522
    DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2011.05.006

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    Cited by:

    1. Yin, Xiang & Chen, Wenying & Eom, Jiyong & Clarke, Leon E. & Kim, Son H. & Patel, Pralit L. & Yu, Sha & Kyle, G. Page, 2015. "China's transportation energy consumption and CO2 emissions from a global perspective," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 233-248.
    2. Mahlia, T.M.I. & Tohno, S. & Tezuka, T., 2012. "A review on fuel economy test procedure for automobiles: Implementation possibilities in Malaysia and lessons for other countries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(6), pages 4029-4046.
    3. Mustapa, Siti Indati & Bekhet, Hussain Ali, 2016. "Analysis of CO2 emissions reduction in the Malaysian transportation sector: An optimisation approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 171-183.
    4. J. Javid, Roxana & Nejat, Ali & Hayhoe, Katharine, 2014. "Selection of CO2 mitigation strategies for road transportation in the United States using a multi-criteria approach," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 960-972.
    5. Rahman, Syed Masiur & Khondaker, A.N. & Hasan, Md. Arif & Reza, Imran, 2017. "Greenhouse gas emissions from road transportation in Saudi Arabia - a challenging frontier," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 812-821.
    6. Bueno, Gorka, 2012. "Analysis of scenarios for the reduction of energy consumption and GHG emissions in transport in the Basque Country," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 1988-1998.
    7. Motasemi, F. & Afzal, Muhammad T., 2013. "A review on the microwave-assisted pyrolysis technique," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 317-330.
    8. Nasruddin, & Idrus Alhamid, M. & Daud, Yunus & Surachman, Arief & Sugiyono, Agus & Aditya, H.B. & Mahlia, T.M.I., 2016. "Potential of geothermal energy for electricity generation in Indonesia: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 733-740.
    9. Xie, Chunping & Hawkes, Adam D., 2015. "Estimation of inter-fuel substitution possibilities in China's transport industry using ridge regression," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(C), pages 260-267.
    10. repec:eee:rensus:v:77:y:2017:i:c:p:327-335 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Mahlia, T.M.I. & Tohno, S. & Tezuka, T., 2012. "History and current status of the motor vehicle energy labeling and its implementation possibilities in Malaysia," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 1828-1844.
    12. Solaymani, Saeed & Kardooni, Roozbeh & Yusoff, Sumiani Binti & Kari, Fatimah, 2015. "The impacts of climate change policies on the transportation sector," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 719-728.

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    CO2 emission; COPERT; Energy consumption; Road transport; Mitigation; Global warming;

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