IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/bla/jregsc/v56y2016i2p288-312.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

The Puzzle Of Job Search And Housing Tenure: A Reconciliation Of Theory And Empirical Evidence

Author

Listed:
  • Andrea Morescalchi

Abstract

Oswald's thesis posits that workers who own their own home should have longer unemployment spells due to restricted mobility, but repeatedly the reverse is found. We contribute to shed light on this puzzle in two key ways. First, we show that the thesis holds when stated in terms of search intensity instead of unemployment. In a job search model with moving costs we show that unemployed homeowners search less than renters. We confirm this result empirically using UK LFS data. Second, we provide evidence that homeowners select search methods associated with shorter unemployment spells, suggesting that they search more effciently.
(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

Suggested Citation

  • Andrea Morescalchi, 2016. "The Puzzle Of Job Search And Housing Tenure: A Reconciliation Of Theory And Empirical Evidence," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 56(2), pages 288-312, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:jregsc:v:56:y:2016:i:2:p:288-312
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1111/jors.2016.56.issue-2
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. David G. Blanchflower & Andrew J. Oswald, 2013. "Does High Home-Ownership Impair the Labor Market?," NBER Working Papers 19079, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Belot, Michele & van Ours, Jan C., 2001. "Unemployment and Labor Market Institutions: An Empirical Analysis," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 403-418, December.
    3. Holzer, Harry J, 1988. "Search Method Use by Unemployed Youth," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 6(1), pages 1-20, January.
    4. Jakob Roland Munch & Michael Rosholm & Michael Svarer, 2006. "Are Homeowners Really More Unemployed?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 116(514), pages 991-1013, October.
    5. Jan Rouwendal & Peter Nijkamp, 2010. "Homeownership and Labour-Market Behaviour: Interpreting the Evidence," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 42(2), pages 419-433, February.
    6. Dietz, Robert D. & Haurin, Donald R., 2003. "The social and private micro-level consequences of homeownership," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(3), pages 401-450, November.
    7. Casper van Ewijk & Michiel van Leuvensteijn, 2009. "Homeownership and the labour market in Europe," CPB Special Publication 79, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    8. Oswald Andrew J., 1996. "A Conjecture on the Explanation for High Unemployment in the Industrialized Nations : Part I," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 475, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
    9. John T. Addison & Pedro Portugal, 2002. "Job search methods and outcomes," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 54(3), pages 505-533, July.
    10. Nathalie Havet & Alexis Penot, 2010. "Does Homeownership Harm Labour Market Performances? A Survey," Working Papers 1012, Groupe d'Analyse et de Théorie Economique Lyon St-Étienne (GATE Lyon St-Étienne), Université de Lyon.
    11. Laamanen, Jani-Petri, 2017. "Home-ownership and the Labour Market: Evidence from Rental Housing Market Deregulation," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 157-167.
    12. Andrea Weber & Helmut Mahringer, 2008. "Choice and success of job search methods," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 35(1), pages 153-178, August.
    13. Bover, Olympia & Muellbauer, John & Murphy, Anthony, 1989. "Housing, Wages and UK Labour Markets," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 51(2), pages 97-136, March.
    14. Petrongolo, Barbara, 2009. "The long-term effects of job search requirements: Evidence from the UK JSA reform," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(11-12), pages 1234-1253, December.
    15. Carole Brunet & Andrew Clark & Jean-Yves Lesueur, 2007. "Statut résidentiel et durée de chômage en France et au Royaume-Uni," Revue Française d'Économie, Programme National Persée, vol. 22(2), pages 165-190.
    16. Manning, Alan, 2009. "You can't always get what you want: The impact of the UK Jobseeker's Allowance," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 239-250, June.
    17. David Genesove & Christopher Mayer, 2001. "Loss Aversion and Seller Behavior: Evidence from the Housing Market," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 116(4), pages 1233-1260.
    18. Sam Schulhofer-Wohl, 2012. "Negative equity does not reduce homeowners’ mobility," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Feb, pages 1-17.
    19. Böheim, René & Taylor, Mark P., 2001. "Job search methods, intensity and success in Britain in the 1990s," ISER Working Paper Series 2001-07, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    20. Yuval Kantor & Peter Nijkamp & Jan Rouwendal, 2013. "Homeownership, Unemployment and Commuting Distances," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 13-144/VIII, Tinbergen Institute.
    21. Blau, David M & Robins, Philip K, 1990. "Job Search Outcomes for the Employed and Unemployed," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(3), pages 637-655, June.
    22. Gregg, Paul & Wadsworth, Jonathan, 1996. "How Effective Are State Employment Agencies? Jobcentre Use and Job Matching in Britain," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 58(3), pages 443-467, August.
    23. Jaakko Pehkonen, 1999. "Unemployment and home-ownership," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(5), pages 263-265.
    24. Thomas De Graaff & Michiel Van Leuvensteijn, 2013. "A European Cross-Country Comparison of the Impact of Homeownership and Transaction Costs on Job Tenure," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(9), pages 1443-1461, October.
    25. Longhi, Simonetta & Taylor, Mark P., 2011. "Explaining Differences in Job Search Outcomes Between Employed and Unemployed Job Seekers," IZA Discussion Papers 5860, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    26. Coulson, N. Edward & Fisher, Lynn M., 2009. "Housing tenure and labor market impacts: The search goes on," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(3), pages 252-264, May.
    27. Modestino, Alicia Sasser & Dennett, Julia, 2013. "Are American homeowners locked into their houses? The impact of housing market conditions on state-to-state migration," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 322-337.
    28. Ronald Bachmann & Daniel Baumgarten, 2013. "How do the unemployed search for a job? – Evidence from the EU Labour Force Survey," IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 2(1), pages 1-25, December.
    29. Partha Deb & Pravin K. Trivedi, 2006. "Specification and simulated likelihood estimation of a non-normal treatment-outcome model with selection: Application to health care utilization," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 9(2), pages 307-331, July.
    30. Michiel van Leuvensteijn & Pierre Koning, 2006. "The Effect of Home-Ownership on Labour Mobility in the Netherlands," Chapters, in: Julián Messina & Claudio Michelacci & Jarkko Turunen & Gylfi Zoega (ed.), Labour Market Adjustments in Europe, chapter 6, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    31. Ernest P. Goss & Joseph M. Phillips, 1997. "The Impact of Home Ownership on the Duration of Unemployment," The Review of Regional Studies, Southern Regional Science Association, vol. 27(1), pages 9-27, Summer.
    32. Schmitt, John & Wadsworth, Jonathan, 1993. "Unemployment Benefit Levels and Search Activity," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 55(1), pages 1-24, February.
    33. Train,Kenneth E., 2009. "Discrete Choice Methods with Simulation," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521747387, April.
    34. Rivers, Douglas & Vuong, Quang H., 1988. "Limited information estimators and exogeneity tests for simultaneous probit models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 347-366, November.
    35. Quigley, John M, 1987. "Interest Rate Variations, Mortgage Prepayments and Household Mobility," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 69(4), pages 636-643, November.
    36. Arulampalam, Wiji & Booth, Alison L & Taylor, Mark P, 2000. "Unemployment Persistence," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 52(1), pages 24-50, January.
    37. Di Tella, Rafael & MacCulloch, Robert, 2005. "The consequences of labor market flexibility: Panel evidence based on survey data," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 49(5), pages 1225-1259, July.
    38. Carole Brunet & Jean-Yves Lesueur, 2004. "Le statut résidentiel affecte-t-il la durée de chômage ?. Une estimation micro-économétrique sur données françaises," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 55(3), pages 569-578.
    39. Gourieroux, Christian & Monfort, Alain & Trognon, Alain, 1984. "Pseudo Maximum Likelihood Methods: Theory," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 681-700, May.
    40. Ferreira, Fernando & Gyourko, Joseph & Tracy, Joseph, 2010. "Housing busts and household mobility," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 34-45, July.
    41. Gordon Hughes & Barry McCormick, 1991. "Housing Markets, Unemployment and Labour Market Flexibility in the U.K," NBER Chapters, in: International Volatility and Economic Growth: The First Ten Years of The International Seminar on Macroeconomics, pages 83-114, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    42. Gourieroux, Christian & Monfort, Alain & Trognon, Alain, 1984. "Pseudo Maximum Likelihood Methods: Applications to Poisson Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 701-720, May.
    43. Bhat, Chandra R., 2001. "Quasi-random maximum simulated likelihood estimation of the mixed multinomial logit model," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 677-693, August.
    44. Richard K. Green & Patric H. Hendershott, 2001. "Home-ownership and Unemployment in the US," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 38(9), pages 1509-1520, August.
    45. Mark Partridge & Dan Rickman, 1997. "The Dispersion of US State Unemployment Rates: The Role of Market and Non-market Equilibrium Factors," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(6), pages 593-606.
    46. Angrist, Joshua D & Evans, William N, 1998. "Children and Their Parents' Labor Supply: Evidence from Exogenous Variation in Family Size," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 450-477, June.
    47. Cunningham, Christopher R. & Engelhardt, Gary V., 2008. "Housing capital-gains taxation and homeowner mobility: Evidence from the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(3), pages 803-815, May.
    48. Henley, Andrew, 1998. "Residential Mobility, Housing Equity and the Labour Market," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(447), pages 414-427, March.
    49. Engelhardt, Gary V. & Eriksen, Michael D. & Gale, William G. & Mills, Gregory B., 2010. "What are the social benefits of homeownership? Experimental evidence for low-income households," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(3), pages 249-258, May.
    50. DiPasquale, Denise & Glaeser, Edward L., 1999. "Incentives and Social Capital: Are Homeowners Better Citizens?," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 354-384, March.
    51. Engelhardt, Gary V., 2003. "Nominal loss aversion, housing equity constraints, and household mobility: evidence from the United States," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 171-195, January.
    52. Paul Flatau & Matt Forbes & Patric H. Hendershott, 2003. "Homeownership and Unemployment: The Roles of Leverage and Public Housing," NBER Working Papers 10021, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    53. van Ewijk, Casper & van Leuvensteijn, Michiel (ed.), 2009. "Homeownership and the Labour Market in Europe," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199543946.
    54. McCormick, Barry, 1983. "Housing and Unemployment in Great Britain," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 35(0), pages 283-305, Supplemen.
    55. Osberg, Lars, 1993. "Fishing in Different Pools: Job Search Strategies and Job-Finding Success in Canada in the Early 1980s," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 11(2), pages 348-386, April.
    56. Colin Green, 2012. "Employed and unemployed job search methods: Australian evidence on search duration, wages and job stability," Working Papers 50029416, Lancaster University Management School, Economics Department.
    57. Zabel, Jeffrey E., 2012. "Migration, housing market, and labor market responses to employment shocks," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(2), pages 267-284.
    58. Hughes, Gordon & McCormick, Barry, 1981. "Do Council Housing Policies Reduce Migration between Regions?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 91(364), pages 919-937, December.
    59. Wadsworth, Jonathan, 1991. "Unemployment Benefits and Search Effort in the UK Labour Market," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 58(229), pages 17-34, February.
    60. Nickell, Stephen, 1998. "Unemployment: Questions and Some Answers," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(448), pages 802-816, May.
    61. Harminder Battu & Ada Ma & Euan Phimister, 2008. "Housing Tenure, Job Mobility and Unemployment in the UK," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(527), pages 311-328, March.
    62. Michiel van Leuvensteijn & Thomas de Graaff, 2007. "The impact of housing market institutions on labour mobility; a European cross-country comparison," CPB Discussion Paper 82, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    63. Carole Brunet & Jean-Yves Lesueur, 2003. "Do homeowners stay unemployed longer ? A French micro-econometric study," Post-Print halshs-00178576, HAL.
    64. Coulson, N. Edward & Grieco, Paul L.E., 2013. "Mobility and mortgages: Evidence from the PSID," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 1-7.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. J. Meekes & W.H.J. Hassink, 2016. "The role of the housing market in workers’ resilience to job displacement after firm bankruptcy," Working Papers 16-10, Utrecht School of Economics.
    2. Andrea Morescalchi, 2016. "A new career in a new town. Job search methods and regional mobility of unemployed workers," ERSA conference papers ersa16p307, European Regional Science Association.
    3. Andrea Morescalchi, 0. "A new career in a new town. Job search methods and regional mobility of unemployed workers," Portuguese Economic Journal, Springer;Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao, vol. 0, pages 1-50.
    4. Sander van Veldhuizen & Bart Voogt & Benedikt Vogt & Andrea Morescalchi, 2017. "Negative home equity and job mobility," CPB Discussion Paper 345.rdf, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    5. Caliendo, Marco & Gielen, Anne C. & Mahlstedt, Robert, 2015. "Home-ownership, unemployed’s job search behavior and post-unemployment outcomes," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 137(C), pages 218-221.
    6. Julie Beugnot & Olivier Charlot & Guy Lacroix, 2019. "Does promoting homeownership always damage labour market performances?," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 127(2), pages 161-183, July.
    7. Sander van Veldhuizen & Bart Voogt & Benedikt Vogt & Andrea Morescalchi, 2017. "Negative home equity and job mobility," CPB Discussion Paper 345, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    8. Andrea Morescalchi, 2021. "A new career in a new town. Job search methods and regional mobility of unemployed workers," Portuguese Economic Journal, Springer;Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao, vol. 20(2), pages 223-272, May.
    9. Yang, Xi, 2019. "The effects of home ownership on post-unemployment wages," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 1-17.
    10. Meekes, Jordy & Hassink, Wolter, 2017. "The Role of the Housing Market in Workers' Resilience to Job Displacement after Firm Bankruptcy," IZA Discussion Papers 10894, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    11. Taskin, A. A. & Yaman, F., 2016. "Homeownership and Unemployment Duration," Working Papers 13/04, Department of Economics, City University London.
    12. Guler, Bulent & Taskin, Ahmet Ali, 2018. "Homeownership and unemployment: The effect of market size," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 191-209.
    13. Morescalchi Andrea & Paruolo Paolo, 2020. "Too Much Stick for the Carrot? Job Search Requirements and Search Behaviour of Unemployment Benefit Claimants," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 20(1), pages 1-21, January.
    14. Meekes, Jordy & Hassink, Wolter H.J., 2019. "The role of the housing market in workers′ resilience to job displacement after firm bankruptcy," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(C), pages 41-65.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Yang, Xi, 2019. "The effects of home ownership on post-unemployment wages," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 1-17.
    2. Andrea Morescalchi, 0. "A new career in a new town. Job search methods and regional mobility of unemployed workers," Portuguese Economic Journal, Springer;Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao, vol. 0, pages 1-50.
    3. Andrea Morescalchi, 2021. "A new career in a new town. Job search methods and regional mobility of unemployed workers," Portuguese Economic Journal, Springer;Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao, vol. 20(2), pages 223-272, May.
    4. Andrea Morescalchi, 2016. "A new career in a new town. Job search methods and regional mobility of unemployed workers," ERSA conference papers ersa16p307, European Regional Science Association.
    5. Broulíková, Hana M. & Huber, Peter & Montag, Josef & Sunega, Petr, 2020. "Homeownership, mobility, and unemployment: Evidence from housing privatization," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(C).
    6. Sander van Veldhuizen & Bart Voogt & Benedikt Vogt & Andrea Morescalchi, 2017. "Negative home equity and job mobility," CPB Discussion Paper 345, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    7. Daan Isebaert & Freddy Heylen & Carine Smolders, 2015. "Houses and/or Jobs: Ownership and the Labour Market in Belgian Districts," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(8), pages 1387-1406, August.
    8. Gaetano Lisi, 2016. "Mortgage Market, Housing Tenure Choice and Unemployment," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 53(4), pages 472-493, November.
    9. Nathalie Havet & Carole Brunet, 2009. "Propriété immobilière et déqualifications dans l'emploi," Revue Française d'Économie, Programme National Persée, vol. 24(1), pages 121-155.
    10. Bloze, Gintautas & Skak, Morten, 2016. "Housing equity, residential mobility and commuting," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 156-165.
    11. Sander van Veldhuizen & Bart Voogt & Benedikt Vogt & Andrea Morescalchi, 2017. "Negative home equity and job mobility," CPB Discussion Paper 345.rdf, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    12. Rodríguez Hernández, José E. & Barrios García, Javier A., 2012. "¿Incide la forma de tenencia de la vivienda habitual sobre la situación de empleo en España?/Does the Housing Tenure Choice Affect the Employment Situation in Spain?," Estudios de Economia Aplicada, Estudios de Economia Aplicada, vol. 30, pages 751(22)-751, Agosto.
    13. Stijn Baert & Freddy Heylen & Daan Isebaert, 2014. "Does Homeownership Lead to Longer Unemployment Spells? The Role of Mortgage Payments," De Economist, Springer, vol. 162(3), pages 263-286, September.
    14. David G. Blanchflower & Andrew J. Oswald, 2013. "Does High Home-Ownership Impair the Labor Market?," NBER Working Papers 19079, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    15. Laamanen, Jani-Petri, 2017. "Home-ownership and the Labour Market: Evidence from Rental Housing Market Deregulation," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 157-167.
    16. Daniel C. Monchuk & Maureen Kilkenny & Euan Phimister, 2014. "Rural Homeownership and Labour Mobility in the United States," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(2), pages 350-362, February.
    17. Meekes, Jordy & Hassink, Wolter H.J., 2019. "The role of the housing market in workers′ resilience to job displacement after firm bankruptcy," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(C), pages 41-65.
    18. Botsch, Matthew J. & Morris, Stephen D., 2021. "Job loss risk, expected mobility, and home ownership," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(C).
    19. Semih Tumen & Tugba Zeydanli, 2014. "Home Ownership and Job Satisfaction," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 117(1), pages 165-177, May.
    20. Paul Flatau & Matt Forbes & Patric H. Hendershott, 2003. "Homeownership and Unemployment: The Roles of Leverage and Public Housing," NBER Working Papers 10021, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
    • J64 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search
    • R21 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Housing Demand
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population
    • R29 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Other

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bla:jregsc:v:56:y:2016:i:2:p:288-312. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0022-4146 .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Wiley Content Delivery (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0022-4146 .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.