IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/bla/ajarec/v60y2016i3p348-365.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Agriculture, trade openness and emissions: an empirical analysis and policy options

Author

Listed:
  • Shuddhasattwa Rafiq
  • Ruhul Salim
  • Nicholas Apergis

Abstract

type="main" xml:id="ajar12131-abs-0001"> This article investigates the impact of sectoral production allocation, energy usage patterns and trade openness on pollutant emissions in a panel consisting of high-, medium- and low-income countries. Extended STIRPAT (Stochastic Impact by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology) and EKC (Environmental Kuznets Curve) models are conducted to systematically identify these factors driving CO2 emissions in these countries during the period 1980–2010. To this end, the study employs three different heterogeneous, dynamic mean group-type linear panel models and one nonlinear panel data estimation procedure that allows for cross-sectional dependence. While affluence, nonrenewable energy consumption and energy intensity variables are found to drive pollutant emissions in linear models, population is also found to be a significant driver in the nonlinear model. Both service sector and agricultural value-added levels play a significant role in reducing pollution levels, whereas industrialisation increases pollution levels. Although the linear model fails to track any significant impact of trade openness, the nonlinear model finds trade liberalisation to significantly affect emission reduction levels. All of these results suggest that economic development, and especially industrialisation strategies and environmental policies, need to be coordinated to play a greater role in emission reduction due to trade liberalisation.

Suggested Citation

  • Shuddhasattwa Rafiq & Ruhul Salim & Nicholas Apergis, 2016. "Agriculture, trade openness and emissions: an empirical analysis and policy options," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 60(3), pages 348-365, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:ajarec:v:60:y:2016:i:3:p:348-365
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1111/ajar.2016.60.issue-3
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Nicholas Apergis & Ruhul Salim, 2015. "Renewable energy consumption and unemployment: evidence from a sample of 80 countries and nonlinear estimates," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(52), pages 5614-5633, November.
    2. Joakim Westerlund, 2007. "Testing for Error Correction in Panel Data," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 69(6), pages 709-748, December.
    3. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2014. "Renewable energy, output, CO2 emissions, and fossil fuel prices in Central America: Evidence from a nonlinear panel smooth transition vector error correction model," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 226-232.
    4. Markus Eberhardt & Francis Teal, 2008. "Modeling Technology and Technological Change in Manufacturing: How do Countries Differ?," CSAE Working Paper Series 2008-12, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
    5. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2006. "Estimation and Inference in Large Heterogeneous Panels with a Multifactor Error Structure," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 74(4), pages 967-1012, July.
    6. Werner Antweiler & Brian R. Copeland & M. Scott Taylor, 2001. "Is Free Trade Good for the Environment?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(4), pages 877-908, September.
    7. Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada & Maruotti, Antonello, 2011. "The impact of urbanization on CO2 emissions: Evidence from developing countries," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(7), pages 1344-1353, May.
    8. Shahiduzzaman, M.D. & Alam, Khorshed, 2014. "Interfuel substitution in Australia: a way forward to achieve environmental sustainability," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 58(1), January.
    9. Jones, Donald W., 1991. "How urbanization affects energy-use in developing countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 19(7), pages 621-630, September.
    10. Dean, Judith M., 1992. "Trade and the environment : a survey of the literature," Policy Research Working Paper Series 966, The World Bank.
    11. Pesaran, M. Hashem & Vanessa Smith, L. & Yamagata, Takashi, 2013. "Panel unit root tests in the presence of a multifactor error structure," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 175(2), pages 94-115.
    12. Sharif Hossain, Md., 2011. "Panel estimation for CO2 emissions, energy consumption, economic growth, trade openness and urbanization of newly industrialized countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(11), pages 6991-6999.
    13. Serena Ng & Pierre Perron, 2001. "LAG Length Selection and the Construction of Unit Root Tests with Good Size and Power," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(6), pages 1519-1554, November.
    14. Salim, Ruhul A. & Shafiei, Sahar, 2014. "Urbanization and renewable and non-renewable energy consumption in OECD countries: An empirical analysis," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 581-591.
    15. Kapetanios, George & Mitchell, James & Shin, Yongcheol, 2014. "A nonlinear panel data model of cross-sectional dependence," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 179(2), pages 134-157.
    16. Bloch, Harry & Rafiq, Shuddhasattwa & Salim, Ruhul, 2015. "Economic growth with coal, oil and renewable energy consumption in China: Prospects for fuel substitution," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 104-115.
    17. Pesaran, M Hashem, 1997. "The Role of Economic Theory in Modelling the Long Run," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 107(440), pages 178-191, January.
    18. Hansen, Bruce E., 1999. "Threshold effects in non-dynamic panels: Estimation, testing, and inference," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 93(2), pages 345-368, December.
    19. Eberhardt, Markus & Bond, Stephen, 2009. "Cross-section dependence in nonstationary panel models: a novel estimator," MPRA Paper 17692, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    20. Enders, Walter & Granger, Clive W J, 1998. "Unit-Root Tests and Asymmetric Adjustment with an Example Using the Term Structure of Interest Rates," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 16(3), pages 304-311, July.
    21. Caroline Saunders & Anita Wreford & Selim Cagatay, 2006. "Trade liberalisation and greenhouse gas emissions: the case of dairying in the European Union and New Zealand ," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 50(4), pages 538-555, December.
    22. Pesaran, M. Hashem & Smith, Ron, 1995. "Estimating long-run relationships from dynamic heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 79-113, July.
    23. Josep Lluís Carrion-i-Silvestre & Tomás del Barrio-Castro & Enrique López-Bazo, 2005. "Breaking the panels: An application to the GDP per capita," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 8(2), pages 159-175, July.
    24. Warr, Peter & Yusuf, Arief Anshory, 2011. "Reducing Indonesia’s deforestation-based greenhouse gas emissions," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 55(3), pages 1-25, September.
    25. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2021. "General diagnostic tests for cross-sectional dependence in panels," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 60(1), pages 13-50, January.
    26. Jushan Bai & Pierre Perron, 2003. "Computation and analysis of multiple structural change models," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(1), pages 1-22.
    27. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2007. "A simple panel unit root test in the presence of cross-section dependence," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(2), pages 265-312.
    28. Sharma, Susan Sunila, 2011. "Determinants of carbon dioxide emissions: Empirical evidence from 69 countries," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(1), pages 376-382, January.
    29. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2010. "Coal consumption and economic growth: Evidence from a panel of OECD countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 1353-1359, March.
    30. G. S. Maddala & Shaowen Wu, 1999. "A Comparative Study of Unit Root Tests with Panel Data and a New Simple Test," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(S1), pages 631-652, November.
    31. Shafiei, Sahar & Salim, Ruhul A., 2014. "Non-renewable and renewable energy consumption and CO2 emissions in OECD countries: A comparative analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 547-556.
    32. Selden Thomas M. & Song Daqing, 1994. "Environmental Quality and Development: Is There a Kuznets Curve for Air Pollution Emissions?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 147-162, September.
    33. Tas Thamo & Ross S. Kingwell & David J. Pannell, 2013. "Measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture: economic implications for policy and agricultural producers," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 57(2), pages 234-252, April.
    34. MD Shahiduzzaman & Khorshed Alam, 2014. "Interfuel substitution in Australia: a way forward to achieve environmental sustainability," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 58(1), pages 22-42, January.
    35. Frees, Edward W., 1995. "Assessing cross-sectional correlation in panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 69(2), pages 393-414, October.
    36. Levin, Andrew & Lin, Chien-Fu & James Chu, Chia-Shang, 2002. "Unit root tests in panel data: asymptotic and finite-sample properties," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 1-24, May.
    37. Brantley Liddle, 2011. "Consumption-Driven Environmental Impact and Age Structure Change in OECD Countries," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 24(30), pages 749-770.
    38. Maddala, G S & Wu, Shaowen, 1999. "A Comparative Study of Unit Root Tests with Panel Data and a New Simple Test," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 631-652, Special I.
    39. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2010. "Renewable energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from a panel of OECD countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 656-660, January.
    40. Salim, Ruhul A. & Rafiq, Shuddhasattwa, 2012. "Why do some emerging economies proactively accelerate the adoption of renewable energy?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 1051-1057.
    41. Poumanyvong, Phetkeo & Kaneko, Shinji, 2010. "Does urbanization lead to less energy use and lower CO2 emissions? A cross-country analysis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(2), pages 434-444, December.
    42. Menyah, Kojo & Wolde-Rufael, Yemane, 2010. "CO2 emissions, nuclear energy, renewable energy and economic growth in the US," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(6), pages 2911-2915, June.
    43. Liddle, Brantley & Lung, Sidney, 2010. "Age-Structure, Urbanization, and Climate Change in Developed Countries: Revisiting STIRPAT for Disaggregated Population and Consumption-Related Environmental Impacts," MPRA Paper 59579, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    44. Jay Squalli & Kenneth Wilson, 2011. "A New Measure of Trade Openness," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(10), pages 1745-1770, October.
    45. Matthew A. Cole & Eric Neumayer, 2003. "Examining the Impact of Demographic Factors On Air Pollution," Labor and Demography 0312005, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 13 May 2004.
    46. Sadorsky, Perry, 2013. "Do urbanization and industrialization affect energy intensity in developing countries?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 52-59.
    47. Sadorsky, Perry, 2014. "The effect of urbanization on CO2 emissions in emerging economies," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 147-153.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Chun Liu & Gui-hua Nie, 2021. "Identifying the Driving Factors of Food Nitrogen Footprint in China, 2000–2018: Econometric Analysis of Provincial Spatial Panel Data by the STIRPAT Model," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(11), pages 1-23, May.
    2. Samuel A Sarkodie & Evans B Ntiamoah & Dongmei Li, 2019. "Panel heterogeneous distribution analysis of trade and modernized agriculture on CO2 emissions: The role of renewable and fossil fuel energy consumption," Natural Resources Forum, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 43(3), pages 135-153, August.
    3. Liu, Xuyi & Zhang, Shun & Bae, Junghan, 2017. "The nexus of renewable energy-agriculture-environment in BRICS," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 204(C), pages 489-496.
    4. Lixun Wang & Usman Mehmood & Ephraim Bonah Agyekum & Solomon Eghosa Uhunamure & Karabo Shale, 2022. "Associating Renewable Energy, Globalization, Agriculture, and Ecological Footprints: Implications for Sustainable Environment in South Asian Countries," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 19(16), pages 1-13, August.
    5. Mansi Wang & Noman Arshed & Mubbasher Munir & Samma Faiz Rasool & Weiwen Lin, 2021. "Investigation of the STIRPAT model of environmental quality: a case of nonlinear quantile panel data analysis," Environment, Development and Sustainability: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Theory and Practice of Sustainable Development, Springer, vol. 23(8), pages 12217-12232, August.
    6. Nie, Fei & Li, Jian & Bi, Xiang & Li, Gucheng, 2022. "Agricultural trade liberalization and domestic fertilizer use: Evidence from China-ASEAN free trade agreement," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 195(C).
    7. Hua Zhang & Sidai Guo & Yubing Qian & Yan Liu & Chengpeng Lu, 2020. "Dynamic analysis of agricultural carbon emissions efficiency in Chinese provinces along the Belt and Road," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 15(2), pages 1-22, February.
    8. Yihui Chen & Minjie Li & Kai Su & Xiaoyong Li, 2019. "Spatial-Temporal Characteristics of the Driving Factors of Agricultural Carbon Emissions: Empirical Evidence from Fujian, China," Energies, MDPI, vol. 12(16), pages 1-23, August.
    9. Sakib Bin Amin & Yaron Nezleen Amin & Mahatab Kabir Khandaker & Farhan Khan & Faria Manal Rahman, 2022. "Unfolding FDI, Renewable Energy Consumption, and Income Inequality Nexus: Heterogeneous Panel Analysis," Energies, MDPI, vol. 15(14), pages 1-21, July.
    10. Mutascu, Mihai, 2018. "A time-frequency analysis of trade openness and CO2 emissions in France," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 115(C), pages 443-455.
    11. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2017. "Investigating the interdependence between non-hydroelectric renewable energy, agricultural value added, and arable land use in Argentina," MPRA Paper 77513, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Pata, Ugur Korkut, 2021. "Linking renewable energy, globalization, agriculture, CO2 emissions and ecological footprint in BRIC countries: A sustainability perspective," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 173(C), pages 197-208.
    13. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2015. "The role of renewable energy and agriculture in reducing CO2 emissions: evidence for North Africa countries," MPRA Paper 68477, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2017. "Renewable energy, arable land, agriculture, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in Morocco," MPRA Paper 76798, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Burak Erkut, 2022. "Renewable Energy and Carbon Emissions: New Empirical Evidence from the Union for the Mediterranean," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 14(11), pages 1-15, June.
    16. Roxana Pincheira & Felipe Zuniga & Pablo Neudorfer, 2021. "Carbon Kuznets curve: a dynamic empirical approach for a panel data," Accounting and Finance, Accounting and Finance Association of Australia and New Zealand, vol. 61(4), pages 5523-5541, December.
    17. Kalpana Regmi & Jiajun Qiao & Jamal Hussain & Lochan Kumar Batala, 2022. "The effect of cereal production, cereal harvested area, and cereal yield, and forest on economic growth and environmental performance in Nepal," Economia Politica: Journal of Analytical and Institutional Economics, Springer;Fondazione Edison, vol. 39(3), pages 739-762, October.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Rafiq, Shuddhasattwa & Salim, Ruhul & Nielsen, Ingrid, 2016. "Urbanization, openness, emissions, and energy intensity: A study of increasingly urbanized emerging economies," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 20-28.
    2. Shuddhasattwa Rafiq & Ruhul Salim & Pasquale M Sgro, 2018. "Energy, unemployment and trade," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 50(47), pages 5122-5134, October.
    3. Rafiq, Shuddhasattwa & Nielsen, Ingrid & Smyth, Russell, 2017. "Effect of internal migration on the environment in China," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 31-44.
    4. Shuddhasattwa Rafiq & Ingrid Nielsen & Russell Smyth, 2016. "Effect of Internal Migration on Air and Water Pollution in China," Monash Economics Working Papers 27-16, Monash University, Department of Economics.
    5. Liddle, Brantley & Sadorsky, Perry, 2017. "How much does increasing non-fossil fuels in electricity generation reduce carbon dioxide emissions?," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 197(C), pages 212-221.
    6. Rafiq, Shudhasattwa & Sgro, Pasquale & Apergis, Nicholas, 2016. "Asymmetric oil shocks and external balances of major oil exporting and importing countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 42-50.
    7. Li, Ke & Lin, Boqiang, 2015. "Impacts of urbanization and industrialization on energy consumption/CO2 emissions: Does the level of development matter?," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 1107-1122.
    8. Churchill, Sefa Awaworyi & Inekwe, John & Ivanovski, Kris & Smyth, Russell, 2018. "The Environmental Kuznets Curve in the OECD: 1870–2014," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 389-399.
    9. Chen, Chaoyi & Pinar, Mehmet & Stengos, Thanasis, 2020. "Renewable energy consumption and economic growth nexus: Evidence from a threshold model," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 139(C).
    10. Shafiei, Sahar & Salim, Ruhul A., 2014. "Non-renewable and renewable energy consumption and CO2 emissions in OECD countries: A comparative analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 547-556.
    11. Hasanov, Fakhri J. & Bulut, Cihan & Suleymanov, Elchin, 2016. "Do population age groups matter in the energy use of the oil-exporting countries?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 82-99.
    12. Sadorsky, Perry, 2014. "The effect of urbanization on CO2 emissions in emerging economies," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 147-153.
    13. Usman, Muhammad & Makhdum, Muhammad Sohail Amjad, 2021. "What abates ecological footprint in BRICS-T region? Exploring the influence of renewable energy, non-renewable energy, agriculture, forest area and financial development," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 179(C), pages 12-28.
    14. Asane-Otoo, Emmanuel, 2015. "Carbon footprint and emission determinants in Africa," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 426-435.
    15. Liddle, Brantley, 2015. "What Are the Carbon Emissions Elasticities for Income and Population? Bridging STIRPAT and EKC via robust heterogeneous panel estimates," MPRA Paper 61304, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Sheng, Pengfei & Guo, Xiaohui, 2016. "The Long-run and Short-run Impacts of Urbanization on Carbon Dioxide Emissions," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 208-215.
    17. Paramati, Sudharshan Reddy & Mo, Di & Gupta, Rakesh, 2017. "The effects of stock market growth and renewable energy use on CO2 emissions: Evidence from G20 countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 360-371.
    18. Jin, Taeyoung, 2022. "The evolutionary renewable energy and mitigation impact in OECD countries," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 189(C), pages 570-586.
    19. Acar, Pinar & Berk, Istemi, 2022. "Power infrastructure quality and industrial performance: A panel data analysis on OECD manufacturing sectors," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 239(PC).
    20. Chakraborty, Saptorshee Kanto & Mazzanti, Massimiliano, 2021. "Renewable electricity and economic growth relationship in the long run: Panel data econometric evidence from the OECD," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 330-341.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bla:ajarec:v:60:y:2016:i:3:p:348-365. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/aaresea.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Wiley Content Delivery (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/aaresea.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.