IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Tourism and Growth in the Caribbean – Evidence from a Panel Error Correction Model


  • Nicholas Apergis

    (Department of Banking and Financial Management, University of Piraeus, Karaoli and Dimitriou 80, Piraeus, Attiki 18534, Greece)

  • James E. Payne

    (Regional Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs and Research, University of South Florida Polytechnic, 3433 Winter Lake Road, Lakeland, FL 33803, USA)


This empirical study examines the causal relationship between tourism and economic growth for a panel of nine Caribbean countries over the period 1995–2007. Pedroni (1999, 2004) panel cointegration tests reveal a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP per capita, the real effective exchange rate and international tourist arrivals per capita. The panel error correction model reveals bidirectional causality between tourism and economic growth in both the short run and the long run.

Suggested Citation

  • Nicholas Apergis & James E. Payne, 2012. "Tourism and Growth in the Caribbean – Evidence from a Panel Error Correction Model," Tourism Economics, , vol. 18(2), pages 449-456, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:sae:toueco:v:18:y:2012:i:2:p:449-456
    DOI: 10.5367/te.2012.0119

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Paolo Figini & Laura Vici, 2010. "Tourism and Growth in a Cross Section of Countries," Tourism Economics, , vol. 16(4), pages 789-805, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Sadia Bano & Mehtab Alam & Anwar Khan & Lu Liu, 2021. "The nexus of tourism, renewable energy, income, and environmental quality: an empirical analysis of Pakistan," Environment, Development and Sustainability: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Theory and Practice of Sustainable Development, Springer, vol. 23(10), pages 14854-14877, October.
    2. Colin Cannonier & Monica Galloway Burke, 2019. "The economic growth impact of tourism in Small Island Developing States—evidence from the Caribbean," Tourism Economics, , vol. 25(1), pages 85-108, February.
    3. Adamopoulos, Antonios, 2021. "A System Equation Model for Tourism and Economic Growth," Economia Internazionale / International Economics, Camera di Commercio Industria Artigianato Agricoltura di Genova, vol. 74(3), pages 311-334.
    4. Johnella Bradshaw & Simron Jit Singh & Su-Yin Tan & Tomer Fishman & Kristen Pott, 2020. "GIS-Based Material Stock Analysis (MSA) of Climate Vulnerabilities to the Tourism Industry in Antigua and Barbuda," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(19), pages 1-22, September.
    5. Can Tansel TUGCU & Mert TOPCU, 2018. "The impact of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions on tourism: Does the source of emission matter?," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER, vol. 0(1(614), S), pages 125-136, Spring.
    6. Alam Rehman & Amir Ishaque & Shumaila Malik & Shams Ur Rehman & Arif Hussain & Muhammad Khan & Muhammad Zeeshan & Fakhr E. Alam Afridi, 2021. "Exploring Asymmetric Nexus Between Tourism, Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions in the Context of Pakistan," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 11(3), pages 338-345.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Rainer Andergassen & Guido Candela & Paolo Figini, 2017. "The management of tourism destinations," Tourism Economics, , vol. 23(1), pages 49-65, February.
    2. Chia-Lin Chang & Thanchanok Khamkaew & Michael McAleer, 2012. "IV Estimation of a Panel Threshold Model of Tourism Specialization and Economic Development," Tourism Economics, , vol. 18(1), pages 5-41, February.
    3. Adriana Csikosova & Katarina Culkova & Erik Weiss & Maria Janoskova, 2021. "Evaluation of Market with Accommodation Facilities Considering Risk Influence—Case Study Slovakia," JRFM, MDPI, vol. 14(5), pages 1-17, May.
    4. Raffaele Paci & Emanuela Marrocu, 2014. "Tourism and regional growth in Europe," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 93, pages 25-50, November.
    5. Marrocu, Emanuela & Paci, Raffaele & Zara, Andrea, 2015. "Micro-economic determinants of tourist expenditure: A quantile regression approach," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 13-30.
    6. David Perrain & Philippe Jean-Pierre, 2019. "The smart destination strategy, a key factor for changes in vulnerable tourist destinations? [La stratégie de destination intelligente, facteur clé des mutations des destinations touristiques vulné," Post-Print hal-02144769, HAL.
    7. Manuel Vanegas Sr & William Gartner & Benjamin Senauer, 2015. "Tourism and Poverty Reduction: An Economic Sector Analysis for Costa Rica and Nicaragua," Tourism Economics, , vol. 21(1), pages 159-182, February.
    8. Ceyhun Can OZCAN & Murat ASLAN & Saban NAZLIOGLU, 2017. "Economic freedom, economic growth and international tourism for post-communist (transition) countries: A panel causality analysis," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER, vol. 0(2(611), S), pages 75-98, Summer.
    9. Luis Delfim Santos & Ana Catarina Vieira, 2020. "Tourism and regional development: a spatial econometric model for Portugal at municipal level," Portuguese Economic Journal, Springer;Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao, vol. 19(3), pages 285-299, September.
    10. Akama, Erick, 2016. "International tourism receipts and economic growth in Kenya 1980 -2013," MPRA Paper 78110, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Bo Zhou & Yanping Xu & Seul Ki Lee, 2019. "Tourism development and regional production efficiency: Evidence from southwestern China," Tourism Economics, , vol. 25(5), pages 800-818, August.
    12. Stanislav H. Ivanov & Craig Webster, 2013. "Tourism's Contribution to Economic Growth: A Global Analysis for the First Decade of the Millennium," Tourism Economics, , vol. 19(3), pages 477-508, June.
    13. Carmen María Llorca-Rodríguez & Amalia Cristina Casas-Jurado & Rosa María García-Fernández, 2016. "The Regional Polarization of Tourism's Contribution to Economic Growth in Peru: Alternative Solutions," Tourism Economics, , vol. 22(2), pages 397-415, April.
    14. Taotao Deng & Mulan Ma & Shuai Shao, 2014. "Research Note: Has International Tourism Promoted Economic Growth in China? A Panel Threshold Regression Approach," Tourism Economics, , vol. 20(4), pages 911-917, August.
    15. Benzarour, Choukri & satour, rachid, 2016. "السياحة والنمو الاقتصادي في الجزائر : الأدلة من التكامل المشترك و تحليل السببية [Tourism and economic growth in Algeria: Evidence of Cointegration and causal analysis]," MPRA Paper 78731, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Nizar, Muhammad Afdi, 2011. "Pengaruh Pariwisata Terhadap Pertumbuhan Ekonomi Di Indonesia [Tourism Effect On Economic Growth In Indonesia]," MPRA Paper 65628, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Jayaraman, Tiru & Choong, Chee-Keong & Fatt Ng, Cheong & Bhatt, Markand, 2017. "Tourism-Growth Nexus in the South Pacific Islands: Role of Financial Sector Development as a Contingent Factor An Empirical Study of Fiji: 1980-2014," MPRA Paper 79461, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Jorge Ridderstaat & Robertico Croes, 2013. "The Force Field of Tourism," Review of Economic Analysis, Digital Initiatives at the University of Waterloo Library, vol. 5(1), pages 1-24, June.
    19. Andergassen, Rainer & Candela, Guido & Figini, Paolo, 2013. "An economic model for tourism destinations: Product sophistication and price coordination," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 86-98.
    20. Camelia Surugiu & Marius Razvan Surugiu, 2013. "Is the Tourism Sector Supportive of Economic Growth? Empirical Evidence on Romanian Tourism," Tourism Economics, , vol. 19(1), pages 115-132, February.

    More about this item


    tourism arrivals; real GDP; real exchange rate; Granger-causality; Caribbean;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I18 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:sae:toueco:v:18:y:2012:i:2:p:449-456. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: SAGE Publications (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.