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Regulatory Races: The Effects of Jurisdictional Competition on Regulatory Standards

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  • Bruce G. Carruthers
  • Naomi R. Lamoreaux

Abstract

This article surveys the literature on regulatory arbitrage in four settings: labor regulation, environmental protection, corporate governance, and banking and finance. For a regulatory race to occur, firms must migrate across state or country borders in response to geographic differences in the costs and benefits of regulation, and governments must shape their regulatory policies with the aim of affecting those migration flows. We find that both these conditions hold only in rare circumstances. Instead, the much more common outcome is for political pressures within jurisdictions to produce a heterogeneous pattern resembling Tiebout sorting. Such regulatory convergence as occurs is more often the result of deliberate harmonization or imitation. ( JEL G18, G28, G38, H73, J08, L51, Q58)

Suggested Citation

  • Bruce G. Carruthers & Naomi R. Lamoreaux, 2016. "Regulatory Races: The Effects of Jurisdictional Competition on Regulatory Standards," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 54(1), pages 52-97, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:aea:jeclit:v:54:y:2016:i:1:p:52-97
    Note: DOI: 10.1257/jel.54.1.52
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    Cited by:

    1. Trey Malone & Antonios M. Koumpias & Per L. Bylund, 2019. "Entrepreneurial response to interstate regulatory competition: evidence from a behavioral discrete choice experiment," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 55(2), pages 172-192, April.
    2. Boyer, Pierre C. & Kempf, Hubert, 2020. "Regulatory arbitrage and the efficiency of banking regulation," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 41(C).
    3. Gräbner, Claudius & Tamesberger, Dennis & Heimberger, Philipp & Kapelari, Timo & Kapeller, Jakob, 2019. "Trade models in the European Union," ifso working paper series 3, University of Duisburg-Essen, Institute for Socio-Economics (ifso).
    4. Agrawal, David R. & Trandel, Gregory A., 2019. "Dynamics of policy adoption with state dependence," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(C).
    5. Franziska Bremus & Tatsiana Kliatskova, 2018. "Legal Harmonization, Institutional Quality, and Countries' External Positions: A Sectoral Analysis," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1768, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    6. Bremus, Franziska & Kliatskova, Tatsiana, 2020. "Legal harmonization, institutional quality, and countries’ external positions: A sectoral analysis," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 107(C).
    7. Bremus, Franziska & Kliatskova, Tatsiana, 2020. "Legal harmonization, institutional quality, and countries’ external positions: A sectoral analysis," EconStor Open Access Articles, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics.
    8. Xu (Susan) Tang, 2017. "Competition or Coordination: Strategic Environmental Policymaking Across OECD Countries," 2017 Papers pta721, Job Market Papers.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • G18 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • G38 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • H73 - Public Economics - - State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations - - - Interjurisdictional Differentials and Their Effects
    • J08 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - General - - - Labor Economics Policies
    • L51 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy - - - Economics of Regulation
    • Q58 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environmental Economics: Government Policy

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