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Pollution Abatement Costs and Foreign Direct Investment Inflows to U.S. States: A Nonparametric Reassessment


  • Henderson, Daniel

    () (SUNY - Binghamton)

  • Millimet, Daniel

    () (SMU)


Keller and Levinson (2002, this Review, 84(4), 691-703) utilize state-level panel data on inflows of foreign direct investment along with an innovative measure of relative pollution abatement costs to assess the impact of environmental stringency on capital flows. Using standard parametric panel data models, the authors find moderate evidence that capital flows are sensitive to abatement costs. Using recently developed nonparametric methods, we assess the robustness of this conclusion. The nonparametric approach reveals that (i) some of the parametric results are not robust, (ii) the impact of relative abatement costs is heterogeneous across states and generally of smaller magnitude than previously suggested.Length: 15 pages

Suggested Citation

  • Henderson, Daniel & Millimet, Daniel, 2005. "Pollution Abatement Costs and Foreign Direct Investment Inflows to U.S. States: A Nonparametric Reassessment," Departmental Working Papers 0507, Southern Methodist University, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:smu:ecowpa:0507

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Arik Levinson, 2001. "An Industry-Adjusted Index of State Environmental Compliance Costs," NBER Chapters,in: Behavioral and Distributional Effects of Environmental Policy, pages 131-158 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Pagan,Adrian & Ullah,Aman, 1999. "Nonparametric Econometrics," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521355643, March.
    3. John A. List & Daniel L. Millimet & Per G. Fredriksson & W. Warren McHone, 2003. "Effects of Environmental Regulations on Manufacturing Plant Births: Evidence from a Propensity Score Matching Estimator," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 944-952, November.
    4. List, John A. & McHone, W. Warren & Millimet, Daniel L., 2004. "Effects of environmental regulation on foreign and domestic plant births: is there a home field advantage?," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 303-326, September.
    5. Carlo Carraro & Gilbert E. Metcalf, 2000. "Behavioral and Distributional Effects of Environmental Policy: Introduction," Discussion Papers Series, Department of Economics, Tufts University 0011, Department of Economics, Tufts University.
    6. Racine, Jeff & Li, Qi, 2004. "Nonparametric estimation of regression functions with both categorical and continuous data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 119(1), pages 99-130, March.
    7. Wolfgang Keller & Arik Levinson, 2002. "Pollution Abatement Costs and Foreign Direct Investment Inflows to U.S. States," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(4), pages 691-703, November.
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    Cited by:

    1. Azomahou, Theophile & Mishra, Tapas, 2009. "Stochastic environmental effects, demographic variation, and economic growth," MERIT Working Papers 016, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    2. George Adu, 2013. "Effects on growth of environmental policy in a small open economy," Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, Springer;Society for Environmental Economics and Policy Studies - SEEPS, vol. 15(4), pages 343-365, October.
    3. Arouri, Mohamed El Hedi & Caporale, Guglielmo Maria & Rault, Christophe & Sova, Robert & Sova, Anamaria, 2012. "Environmental Regulation and Competitiveness: Evidence from Romania," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 130-139.
    4. Ki-Dong Lee & Woohyung Lee & Kichun Kang, 2014. "Pollution Haven with Technological Externalities Arising from Foreign Direct Investment," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 57(1), pages 1-18, January.
    5. Houssem Eddine Chebbi & Marcelo Olarreaga & Habib Zitouna, 2011. "Trade Openness Andco2emissions In Tunisia," Middle East Development Journal (MEDJ), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 3(01), pages 29-53.
    6. Millimet, Daniel L. & Roy, Jayjit, 2011. "Three New Empirical Tests of the Pollution Haven Hypothesis When Environmental Regulation is Endogenous," IZA Discussion Papers 5911, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    7. Bruce G. Carruthers & Naomi R. Lamoreaux, 2016. "Regulatory Races: The Effects of Jurisdictional Competition on Regulatory Standards," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 54(1), pages 52-97, March.
    8. Monica DAS & Debasri MUKHERJEE, 2011. "The J-Curve for the relationship between Pollution Abatement Expenditure and Income per capita: A New Empirical Investigation from US Regional Data," Applied Econometrics and International Development, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 11(2).
    9. Joltreau, Eugénie & Sommerfeld, Katrin, 2016. "Why does emissions trading under the EU ETS not affect firms' competitiveness? Empirical findings from the literature," ZEW Discussion Papers 16-062, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    10. Candau, Fabien & Dienesch, Elisa, 2017. "Pollution Haven and Corruption Paradise," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 85(C), pages 171-192.
    11. Wei-Bin Zhang, 2014. "Global Economic Growth and Environmental Change," SPOUDAI Journal of Economics and Business, SPOUDAI Journal of Economics and Business, University of Piraeus, vol. 64(3), pages 3-29, July-Sept.
    12. Ronald Davies & Helen Naughton, 2014. "Cooperation in environmental policy: a spatial approach," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 21(5), pages 923-954, October.
    13. José-Antonio Monteiro & Madina Kukenova, 2008. "Does Lax Environmental Regulation Attract FDI When Accounting For "Third-Country" Effects?," IRENE Working Papers 08-01, IRENE Institute of Economic Research.
    14. Théophile T. Azomahou & Tapas Mishra & Mamata Parhi, 2015. "Economic Growth under Stochastic Population and Pollution Shocks," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 83(3), pages 314-345, June.
    15. Naughton, Helen T., 2014. "To shut down or to shift: Multinationals and environmental regulation," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 113-117.
    16. Zhang, Hongliang, 2013. "Pollution Haven Effect with Heterogeneous Firms," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 150781, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    17. Paul Missios & Halis Murat Yildiz & Ida Ferrara, 2009. "Foreign Direct Investment and the Choice of Environmental Policy," Working Papers 004, Ryerson University, Department of Economics.
    18. Millimet, Daniel L., 2013. "Environmental Federalism: A Survey of the Empirical Literature," IZA Discussion Papers 7831, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    19. Ben Kheder, Sonia & Zugravu, Natalia, 2012. "Environmental regulation and French firms location abroad: An economic geography model in an international comparative study," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 48-61.
    20. Bialek, Sylwia & Weichenrieder, Alfons J., 2015. "Do stringent environmental policies deter FDI? M&A versus Greenfi eld," Annual Conference 2015 (Muenster): Economic Development - Theory and Policy 113179, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    21. Livanis, Grigorios T. & Salois, Matthew J. & Moss, Charles B., 2009. "A Nonparametric Kernel Representation of the Agricultural Production Function: Implications for Economic Measures of Technology," 83rd Annual Conference, March 30-April 1, 2009, Dublin, Ireland 51063, Agricultural Economics Society.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements

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