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Environmental regulation and French firms location abroad: An economic geography model in an international comparative study

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  • Ben Kheder, Sonia
  • Zugravu, Natalia

Abstract

In this study, we re-examine the pollution haven hypothesis by a fresh take on both its theoretical and empirical aspects. The originality of our work is twofold. First, we apply an economic geography model with the aim of deriving a rigorous specification for the impact of environmental regulation on firms' location choice. Second, we test a conditional logit model using French firm-level data in an international comparative study. We confirm evidence of a strong pollution haven effect for our pooled sample of countries receiving French direct investments. However, through a sensitivity analysis, we validate this finding for developed countries and most of emerging economies and Central and Eastern European countries, but not for most countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States and developing countries, where a more stringent environmental regulation seems to attract investments. Furthermore, we highlight a forward looking behavior of firms, in terms of their location decision-making.

Suggested Citation

  • Ben Kheder, Sonia & Zugravu, Natalia, 2012. "Environmental regulation and French firms location abroad: An economic geography model in an international comparative study," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 48-61.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecolec:v:77:y:2012:i:c:p:48-61
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2011.10.005
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    Cited by:

    1. Tonghui Lian & Tingyu Ma & Jie Cao & You Wu, 2016. "The effects of environmental regulation on the industrial location of China’s manufacturing," Natural Hazards: Journal of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, Springer;International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, vol. 80(2), pages 1381-1403, January.
    2. repec:oup:renvpo:v:11:y:2017:i:2:p:183-206. is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Natalia Zugravu-Soilita, 2017. "Trade in Environmental Goods: Empirical Exploration of Direct and Indirect Effects on Pollution by Country’s Trade Status," Working Papers 2017.56, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    4. Thais NUNEZ-ROCHA & Inmaculada MARTíNEZ-ZARZOSO, 2018. "Is National Environmental Legislation Affecting Emissions?," LEO Working Papers / DR LEO 2505, Orleans Economics Laboratory / Laboratoire d'Economie d'Orleans (LEO), University of Orleans.
    5. Zhaohui Chong & Chenglin Qin & Xinyue Ye, 2016. "Environmental Regulation, Economic Network and Sustainable Growth of Urban Agglomerations in China," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(5), pages 1-21, May.
    6. Thais Nuñez-Rocha, 2016. "Waste haven effect: unwrapping the impact of environmental regulation," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-01339837, HAL.
    7. Bassem Kahouli & Anis Omri & Anissa Chaibi, 2014. "Environmental Regulations, Trade, and Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence from Gravity Equations," Working Papers 2014-189, Department of Research, Ipag Business School.
    8. repec:eee:riibaf:v:42:y:2017:i:c:p:353-364 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Al-mulali, Usama & Foon Tang, Chor, 2013. "Investigating the validity of pollution haven hypothesis in the gulf cooperation council (GCC) countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 813-819.
    10. Schneider, Andrea, 2017. "Policy diffusion and the competition for mobile resources," Annual Conference 2017 (Vienna): Alternative Structures for Money and Banking 168203, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    11. Predrag Rajsic & Glenn Fox, 2016. "Environmental Externalities, Comparative Advantage, and the Location of Production: An Application to the Canadian Dairy Industry," Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics/Revue canadienne d'agroeconomie, Canadian Agricultural Economics Society/Societe canadienne d'agroeconomie, vol. 64(2), pages 311-337, June.
    12. repec:hal:journl:halshs-01339837 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Grégoire Garsous & Tomasz Kozluk, 2017. "Foreign Direct Investment and The Pollution Haven Hypothesis: Evidence from Listed Firms," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 1379, OECD Publishing.
    14. Bialek, Sylwia & Weichenrieder, Alfons J., 2015. "Do stringent environmental policies deter FDI? M&A versus Greenfi eld," Annual Conference 2015 (Muenster): Economic Development - Theory and Policy 113179, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    15. Tonghui Lian & Tingyu Ma & Jie Cao & You Wu, 2016. "The effects of environmental regulation on the industrial location of China’s manufacturing," Natural Hazards: Journal of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, Springer;International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, vol. 80(2), pages 1381-1403, January.
    16. Wu, Haoyi & Guo, Huanxiu & Zhang, Bing & Bu, Maoliang, 2017. "Westward movement of new polluting firms in China: Pollution reduction mandates and location choice," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 119-138.
    17. repec:gam:jsusta:v:9:y:2017:i:8:p:1465-:d:108868 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Natalia Zugravu-Soilita, 2017. "How does Foreign Direct Investment Affect Pollution? Toward a Better Understanding of the Direct and Conditional Effects," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 66(2), pages 293-338, February.
    19. Abdouli, Mohamed & Hammami, Sami, 2017. "Investigating the causality links between environmental quality, foreign direct investment and economic growth in MENA countries," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 264-278.
    20. repec:ebl:ecbull:eb-17-00941 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    FDI; Economic geography; Environmental regulation; Pollution havens;

    JEL classification:

    • F12 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies; Fragmentation
    • F18 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Environment
    • Q28 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Government Policy

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