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Environmental Regulations in Gravity Equations: Evidence from Europe


  • Jerneja Jug
  • Daniel Mirza


One implication of the pollution haven hypothesis is that countries export more by applying more lenient environmental regulations. Most studies that apply gravity-type equations do not find robust support for environmental regulations to affect bilateral exports. In this paper, we show that one can obtain robust negative effects of stringency, as long as gravity equations are well specified with respect to theory. Our results, based on the European data, are both very consistent with US studies on environmental regulations and another line of very recent studies that infer non-biased price or substitution elasticities from trade equations. We show that more stringent environmental regulations, when depicting a pure cost effect, are reducing exports. The coefficient is even larger in the case where exporting countries are Central and Eastern European countries, comparing to the EU15. Further, we show that there is no significant difference in the impact of regulations on trade in case of dirty and clean sectors. Finally, when using GMM estimation, our environmental stringency coefficient gets significantly reinforced. Copyright Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2005.

Suggested Citation

  • Jerneja Jug & Daniel Mirza, 2005. "Environmental Regulations in Gravity Equations: Evidence from Europe," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(11), pages 1591-1615, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:worlde:v:28:y:2005:i:11:p:1591-1615

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    1. Trela, Irene & Whalley, John, 1990. "Global Effects of Developed Country Trade Restrictions on Textiles and Apparel," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 100(403), pages 1190-1205, December.
    2. Bark, Taeho & de Melo, Jaime, 1988. "Export Quota Allocations, Export Earnings, and Market Diversification," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 2(3), pages 341-348, September.
    3. Krishna, Kala & Erzan, Refik & Tan, Ling Hui, 1994. "Rent Sharing in the Multi-fibre Arrangement: Theory and Evidence from U.S. Apparel Imports from Hong Kong," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 2(1), pages 62-73, February.
    4. Faini, Riccardo & Heimler, Alberto, 1991. "The Quality of Production of Textiles and Clothing and the Completion of the Internal Market," CEPR Discussion Papers 508, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    5. Faini, Riccardo & de Melo, Jaime & Takacs, Wendy, 1992. "The effects of EC-92 on the multi-fibre arrangement," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 36(2-3), pages 527-538, April.
    6. Erzan, Refik & Goto, Junichi & Holmes, Paula, 1989. "Effects of the multifibre arrangement on developing countries'trade : an empirical investigation," Policy Research Working Paper Series 297, The World Bank.
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