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Coherent mortality forecasts for a group of populations: An extension of the lee-carter method

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Cited by:

  1. Leng, Xuan & Peng, Liang, 2016. "Inference pitfalls in Lee–Carter model for forecasting mortality," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 58-65.
  2. Chen, Hua & MacMinn, Richard & Sun, Tao, 2015. "Multi-population mortality models: A factor copula approach," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 135-146.
  3. Søren Kjærgaard & Yunus Emre Ergemen & Malene Kallestrup-Lamb & Jim Oeppen & Rune Lindahl-Jacobsen, 2019. "Forecasting Causes of Death using Compositional Data Analysis: the Case of Cancer Deaths," CREATES Research Papers 2019-07, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
  4. Marie-Pier Bergeron-Boucher & Søren Kjærgaard & James E. Oeppen & James W. Vaupel, 2019. "The impact of the choice of life table statistics when forecasting mortality," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 41(43), pages 1235-1268.
  5. Rob Hyndman & Heather Booth & Farah Yasmeen, 2013. "Coherent Mortality Forecasting: The Product-Ratio Method With Functional Time Series Models," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 50(1), pages 261-283, February.
  6. Ahcan, Ales & Medved, Darko & Olivieri, Annamaria & Pitacco, Ermanno, 2014. "Forecasting mortality for small populations by mixing mortality data," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 12-27.
  7. David Blake & Marco Morales & Jing Ai & Patrick L. Brockett & Linda L. Golden & Wei Zhu, 2017. "Special Edition: Longevity 10 – The Tenth International Longevity Risk and Capital Markets Solutions Conference," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 84(S1), pages 319-343, April.
  8. Shang, Han Lin & Haberman, Steven, 2017. "Grouped multivariate and functional time series forecasting:An application to annuity pricing," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 166-179.
  9. Adrian E. Raftery & Nevena Lalic & Patrick Gerland, 2014. "Joint probabilistic projection of female and male life expectancy," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 30(27), pages 795-822.
  10. French, Declan, 2014. "International mortality modelling—An economic perspective," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 122(2), pages 182-186.
  11. Li, Jackie & Haberman, Steven, 2015. "On the effectiveness of natural hedging for insurance companies and pension plans," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 286-297.
  12. Blake, David & El Karoui, Nicole & Loisel, Stéphane & MacMinn, Richard, 2018. "Longevity risk and capital markets: The 2015–16 update," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 157-173.
  13. David Blake & Marco Morales & Jing Ai & Patrick L. Brockett & Linda L. Golden & Wei Zhu, 2017. "Special Edition: Longevity 10 – The Tenth International Longevity Risk and Capital Markets Solutions Conference," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 84(S1), pages 319-343, April.
  14. Dalkhat M. Ediev, 2009. "Extrapolative Projections of Mortality: Towards a More Consistent Method," VID Working Papers 0803, Vienna Institute of Demography (VID) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna.
  15. Liu, Yanxin & Li, Johnny Siu-Hang, 2018. "A strategy for hedging risks associated with period and cohort effects using q-forwards," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 267-285.
  16. Lenny Stoeldraijer & Coen van Duin & Leo van Wissen & Fanny Janssen, 2013. "Impact of different mortality forecasting methods and explicit assumptions on projected future life expectancy: The case of the Netherlands," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 29(13), pages 323-354.
  17. Schinzinger, Edo & Denuit, Michel M. & Christiansen, Marcus C., 2016. "A multivariate evolutionary credibility model for mortality improvement rates," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 70-81.
  18. Ahmadi, Seyed Saeed & Li, Johnny Siu-Hang, 2014. "Coherent mortality forecasting with generalized linear models: A modified time-transformation approach," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 194-221.
  19. Liu, Yanxin & Li, Johnny Siu-Hang, 2016. "It’s all in the hidden states: A longevity hedging strategy with an explicit measure of population basis risk," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 301-319.
  20. Kleinow, Torsten, 2015. "A common age effect model for the mortality of multiple populations," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 147-152.
  21. Søren Kjærgaard & Yunus Emre Ergemen & Marie-Pier Bergeron Boucher & Jim Oeppen & Malene Kallestrup-Lamb, 2019. "Longevity forecasting by socio-economic groups using compositional data analysis," CREATES Research Papers 2019-08, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
  22. Adrian Raftery & Jennifer Chunn & Patrick Gerland & Hana Ševčíková, 2013. "Bayesian Probabilistic Projections of Life Expectancy for All Countries," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 50(3), pages 777-801, June.
  23. Tim J. Boonen & Hong Li, 2017. "Modeling and Forecasting Mortality With Economic Growth: A Multipopulation Approach," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 54(5), pages 1921-1946, October.
  24. Hong Li & Yang Lu, 2018. "A Bayesian non-parametric model for small population mortality," Post-Print hal-02419000, HAL.
  25. Peter Jevtic & Luca Regis, 2016. "A continuous-time stochastic model for the mortality surface of multiple populations," Working Papers 03/2016, IMT Institute for Advanced Studies Lucca, revised Jul 2016.
  26. Fujisawa Yosuke & Li Johnny Siu-Hang, 2011. "IFRS Convergence: The Role of Stochastic Mortality Models in the Disclosure of Longevity Risk for Defined Benefit Plans," Asia-Pacific Journal of Risk and Insurance, De Gruyter, vol. 5(1), pages 1-27, March.
  27. Bozikas, Apostolos & Pitselis, Georgios, 2020. "Incorporating crossed classification credibility into the Lee–Carter model for multi-population mortality data," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 353-368.
  28. Massimiliano Menzietti & Maria Francesca Morabito & Manuela Stranges, 2019. "Mortality Projections for Small Populations: An Application to the Maltese Elderly," Risks, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 7(2), pages 1-25, March.
  29. David Blake & Marco Morales & Jing Ai & Patrick L. Brockett & Linda L. Golden & Wei Zhu, 2017. "Special Edition: Longevity 10 – The Tenth International Longevity Risk and Capital Markets Solutions Conference," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 84(S1), pages 319-343, April.
  30. Han Lin Shang & Rob J Hyndman, 2016. "Grouped functional time series forecasting: An application to age-specific mortality rates," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 4/16, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
  31. David Blake & Marco Morales & Jing Ai & Patrick L. Brockett & Linda L. Golden & Wei Zhu, 2017. "Special Edition: Longevity 10 – The Tenth International Longevity Risk and Capital Markets Solutions Conference," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 84(S1), pages 319-343, April.
  32. Johnny Siu-Hang Li & Wai-Sum Chan & Rui Zhou, 2017. "Semicoherent Multipopulation Mortality Modeling: The Impact on Longevity Risk Securitization," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 84(3), pages 1025-1065, September.
  33. Wang, Hsin-Chung & Yue, Ching-Syang Jack & Chong, Chen-Tai, 2018. "Mortality models and longevity risk for small populations," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 351-359.
  34. S⊘ren Kjærgaard & Yunus Emre Ergemen & Marie‐Pier Bergeron‐Boucher & Jim Oeppen & Malene Kallestrup‐Lamb, 2020. "Longevity forecasting by socio‐economic groups using compositional data analysis," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 183(3), pages 1167-1187, June.
  35. Alho, Juha, 2008. "Aggregation across countries in stochastic population forecasts," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 343-353.
  36. Uditha Balasooriya & Johnny Siu-Hang Li & Jackie Li, 2020. "The Impact of Model Uncertainty on Index-Based Longevity Hedging and Measurement of Longevity Basis Risk," Risks, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(3), pages 1-25, August.
  37. David Blake & Marco Morales & Enrico Biffis & Yijia Lin & Andreas Milidonis, 2017. "Special Edition: Longevity 10 – The Tenth International Longevity Risk and Capital Markets Solutions Conference," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 84(S1), pages 515-532, April.
  38. Hong Li & Johnny Siu-Hang Li, 2017. "Optimizing the Lee-Carter Approach in the Presence of Structural Changes in Time and Age Patterns of Mortality Improvements," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 54(3), pages 1073-1095, June.
  39. David Blake & Andrew Cairns & Guy Coughlan & Kevin Dowd & Richard MacMinn, 2013. "The New Life Market," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 80(3), pages 501-558, September.
  40. John Bongaarts, 2014. "Trends in Causes of Death in Low-Mortality Countries: Implications for Mortality Projections," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 40(2), pages 189-212, June.
  41. Börger, Matthias & Schupp, Johannes, 2018. "Modeling trend processes in parametric mortality models," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 369-380.
  42. David Blake & Marco Morales & Jing Ai & Patrick L. Brockett & Linda L. Golden & Wei Zhu, 2017. "Special Edition: Longevity 10 – The Tenth International Longevity Risk and Capital Markets Solutions Conference," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 84(S1), pages 319-343, April.
  43. Jia Liu & Jackie Li, 2019. "Beyond the highest life expectancy: construction of proxy upper and lower life expectancy bounds," Journal of Population Research, Springer, vol. 36(2), pages 159-181, June.
  44. Carlo Maccheroni & Samuel Nocito, 2017. "Backtesting the Lee–Carter and the Cairns–Blake–Dowd Stochastic Mortality Models on Italian Death Rates," Risks, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 5(3), pages 1-23, July.
  45. Choi, Yongok, 2016. "Longevity Risk in Korea," KDI Focus 69, Korea Development Institute (KDI).
  46. Alonso, Pablo J. & Benchimol, Andrés Gustavo & Albarrán Lozano, Irene & Marín Díazaraque, Juan Miguel, 2015. "Hierarchical Lee-Carter model estimation through data cloning applied to demographically linked countries," DES - Working Papers. Statistics and Econometrics. WS ws1510, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Estadística.
  47. Chong It Tan & Jackie Li & Johnny Siu-Hang Li & Uditha Balasooriya, 2016. "Stochastic modelling of the hybrid survival curve," Journal of Population Research, Springer, vol. 33(4), pages 307-331, December.
  48. Pascariu, Marius D. & Canudas-Romo, Vladimir & Vaupel, James W., 2018. "The double-gap life expectancy forecasting model," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 339-350.
  49. Hunt, Andrew & Blake, David, 2015. "Modelling longevity bonds: Analysing the Swiss Re Kortis bond," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 12-29.
  50. Rui Zhou & Guangyu Xing & Min Ji, 2019. "Changes of Relation in Multi-Population Mortality Dependence: An Application of Threshold VECM," Risks, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 7(1), pages 1-18, February.
  51. Jevtić, Petar & Regis, Luca, 2019. "A continuous-time stochastic model for the mortality surface of multiple populations," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(C), pages 181-195.
  52. Wang, Chou-Wen & Huang, Hong-Chih & Hong, De-Chuan, 2013. "A feasible natural hedging strategy for insurance companies," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 532-541.
  53. David E Bloom & David Canning, 2006. "Global Demography: Fact, Force and Future," RBA Annual Conference Volume (Discontinued), in: Christopher Kent & Anna Park & Daniel Rees (ed.),Demography and Financial Markets, Reserve Bank of Australia.
  54. David E. Bloom & David Canning & Michael Moore & Younghwan Song, 2007. "The Effect of Subjective Survival Probabilities on Retirement and Wealth in the United States," Chapters, in: Robert L. Clark & Naohiro Ogawa & Andrew Mason (ed.),Population Aging, Intergenerational Transfers and the Macroeconomy, chapter 4, Edward Elgar Publishing.
  55. Torri, Tiziana & Vaupel, James W., 2012. "Forecasting life expectancy in an international context," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 519-531.
  56. Andrew J. G. Cairns & David Blake & Kevin Dowd & Amy R. Kessler, 2016. "Phantoms never die: living with unreliable population data," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 179(4), pages 975-1005, October.
  57. Marie-Pier Bergeron-Boucher & Vladimir Canudas-Romo & James E. Oeppen & James W. Vaupel, 2017. "Coherent forecasts of mortality with compositional data analysis," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 37(17), pages 527-566.
  58. Debón, A. & Chaves, L. & Haberman, S. & Villa, F., 2017. "Characterization of between-group inequality of longevity in European Union countries," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 151-165.
  59. David de la Croix & Omar Licandro, 2013. "The Child is Father Of the Man: Implications for the Demographic Transition," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 123(567), pages 236-261, March.
  60. Rui Zhou & Johnny Siu-Hang Li & Ken Seng Tan, 2013. "Pricing Standardized Mortality Securitizations: A Two-Population Model With Transitory Jump Effects," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 80(3), pages 733-774, September.
  61. Andrew J.G. Cairns & Malene Kallestrup-Lamb & Carsten P.T. Rosenskjold & David Blake & Kevin Dowd, 2016. "Modelling Socio-Economic Differences in the Mortality of Danish Males Using a New Affluence Index," CREATES Research Papers 2016-14, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
  62. Bernard Baffour & James Raymer, 2019. "Estimating multiregional survivorship probabilities for sparse data: An application to immigrant populations in Australia, 1981–2011," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 40(18), pages 463-502.
  63. Cairns, Andrew J.G., 2011. "Modelling and management of longevity risk: Approximations to survivor functions and dynamic hedging," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 438-453.
  64. Guibert, Quentin & Lopez, Olivier & Piette, Pierrick, 2019. "Forecasting mortality rate improvements with a high-dimensional VAR," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(C), pages 255-272.
  65. David Blake & Marco Morales & Jing Ai & Patrick L. Brockett & Linda L. Golden & Wei Zhu, 2017. "Special Edition: Longevity 10 – The Tenth International Longevity Risk and Capital Markets Solutions Conference," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 84(S1), pages 319-343, April.
  66. Syazreen Shair & Sachi Purcal & Nick Parr, 2017. "Evaluating Extensions to Coherent Mortality Forecasting Models," Risks, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 5(1), pages 1-20, March.
  67. Mercedes Ayuso & Jorge Miguel Bravo & Robert Holzman, 2018. "Getting Life Expectancy Estimates Right for Pension Policy: Period versus Cohort Approach," CESifo Working Paper Series 7349, CESifo.
  68. Li, Hong & De Waegenaere, Anja & Melenberg, Bertrand, 2015. "The choice of sample size for mortality forecasting: A Bayesian learning approach," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 153-168.
  69. Yuan Gao & Han Lin Shang, 2017. "Multivariate Functional Time Series Forecasting: Application to Age-Specific Mortality Rates," Risks, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 5(2), pages 1-18, March.
  70. David Blake & Marco Morales & Jing Ai & Patrick L. Brockett & Linda L. Golden & Wei Zhu, 2017. "Special Edition: Longevity 10 – The Tenth International Longevity Risk and Capital Markets Solutions Conference," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 84(S1), pages 319-343, April.
  71. Li, Hong & Lu, Yang, 2017. "Coherent Forecasting Of Mortality Rates: A Sparse Vector-Autoregression Approach," ASTIN Bulletin, Cambridge University Press, vol. 47(2), pages 563-600, May.
  72. Arkadiusz Wiśniowski & Peter Smith & Jakub Bijak & James Raymer & Jonathan Forster, 2015. "Bayesian Population Forecasting: Extending the Lee-Carter Method," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 52(3), pages 1035-1059, June.
  73. Wan, Cheng & Bertschi, Ljudmila, 2015. "Swiss coherent mortality model as a basis for developing longevity de-risking solutions for Swiss pension funds: A practical approach," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 66-75.
  74. Søren Kjærgaard & Vladimir Canudas-Romo, 2017. "Potential support ratios: Cohort versus period perspectives," Population Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 71(2), pages 171-186, May.
  75. Tan, Chong It & Li, Jackie & Li, Johnny Siu-Hang & Balasooriya, Uditha, 2014. "Parametric mortality indexes: From index construction to hedging strategies," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 285-299.
  76. Hunt, Andrew & Blake, David, 2018. "Identifiability, cointegration and the gravity model," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 360-368.
  77. David Blake & Marco Morales & Jing Ai & Patrick L. Brockett & Linda L. Golden & Wei Zhu, 2017. "Special Edition: Longevity 10 – The Tenth International Longevity Risk and Capital Markets Solutions Conference," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 84(S1), pages 319-343, April.
  78. Yongok Choi, 2020. "Impact of Longevity Risks on the Korean Government: Proposing a New Mortality Forecasting Model," Korean Economic Review, Korean Economic Association, vol. 36, pages 201-225.
  79. de Jong, Piet & Tickle, Leonie & Xu, Jianhui, 2016. "Coherent modeling of male and female mortality using Lee–Carter in a complex number framework," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 130-137.
  80. Jackie Li & Leonie Tickle & Nick Parr, 2016. "A multi-population evaluation of the Poisson common factor model for projecting mortality jointly for both sexes," Journal of Population Research, Springer, vol. 33(4), pages 333-360, December.
  81. Polman, Fabian M. & Krijgsman, Cees & Dajani, Karma & Hemminga, Marcus A., 2017. "Modelling a Dutch Pension Fund’s Capital Requirement for Longevity Risk," MPRA Paper 79438, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  82. Andrew J.G. Cairns & Kevin Dowd & David Blake & Guy D. Coughlan, 2014. "Longevity hedge effectiveness: a decomposition," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(2), pages 217-235, February.
  83. Liu, Yanxin & Li, Johnny Siu-Hang, 2015. "The age pattern of transitory mortality jumps and its impact on the pricing of catastrophic mortality bonds," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 135-150.
  84. Fanny Janssen & Leo Wissen & Anton Kunst, 2013. "Including the Smoking Epidemic in Internationally Coherent Mortality Projections," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 50(4), pages 1341-1362, August.
  85. Flici, Farrid, 2016. "Projection des taux de mortalité par âges pour la population algérienne [Forecasting The Age Specific Mortality Rates For The Algerian Population]," MPRA Paper 98784, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Dec 2016.
  86. Istvan Majer & Ralph Stevens & Wilma Nusselder & Johan Mackenbach & Pieter Baal, 2013. "Modeling and Forecasting Health Expectancy: Theoretical Framework and Application," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 50(2), pages 673-697, April.
  87. Shang, Han Lin & Smith, Peter W.F. & Bijak, Jakub & Wiśniowski, Arkadiusz, 2016. "A multilevel functional data method for forecasting population, with an application to the United Kingdom," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 629-649.
  88. Ekheden, Erland & Hössjer, Ola, 2015. "Multivariate time series modeling, estimation and prediction of mortalities," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 156-171.
  89. Danesi, Ivan Luciano & Haberman, Steven & Millossovich, Pietro, 2015. "Forecasting mortality in subpopulations using Lee–Carter type models: A comparison," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 151-161.
  90. Kenneth Wong & Jackie Li & Sixian Tang, 2020. "A modified common factor model for modelling mortality jointly for both sexes," Journal of Population Research, Springer, vol. 37(2), pages 181-212, June.
  91. Giuseppe Giordano & Steven Haberman & Maria Russolillo, 2019. "Coherent modeling of mortality patterns for age-specific subgroups," Decisions in Economics and Finance, Springer;Associazione per la Matematica, vol. 42(1), pages 189-204, June.
  92. Tsai, Cary Chi-Liang & Wu, Adelaide Di, 2020. "Incorporating hierarchical credibility theory into modelling of multi-country mortality rates," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 37-54.
  93. Jarner, Søren F. & Jallbjørn, Snorre, 2020. "Pitfalls and merits of cointegration-based mortality models," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(C), pages 80-93.
  94. Katrien Antonio & Anastasios Bardoutsos & Wilbert Ouburg, 2015. "Bayesian Poisson log-bilinear models for mortality projections with multiple populations," BAFFI CAREFIN Working Papers 1505, BAFFI CAREFIN, Centre for Applied Research on International Markets Banking Finance and Regulation, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy.
  95. Ling Wang & Mei Choi Chiu & Hoi Ying Wong, 2020. "Volterra mortality model: Actuarial valuation and risk management with long-range dependence," Papers 2009.09572, arXiv.org.
  96. Pieter van Baal & Frederik Peters & Johan Mackenbach & Wilma Nusselder, 2016. "Forecasting differences in life expectancy by education," Population Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 70(2), pages 201-216, May.
  97. Christina Bohk-Ewald & Marcus Ebeling & Roland Rau, 2017. "Lifespan Disparity as an Additional Indicator for Evaluating Mortality Forecasts," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 54(4), pages 1559-1577, August.
  98. Luca Regis, 2014. "Demographic uncertainty, the financing mix and the sustainability of welfare systems," Working Papers SWITCH 02-2014, Competitività, Regole, Mercati (CERM).
  99. Péter Vékás, 2020. "Rotation of the age pattern of mortality improvements in the European Union," Central European Journal of Operations Research, Springer;Slovak Society for Operations Research;Hungarian Operational Research Society;Czech Society for Operations Research;Österr. Gesellschaft für Operations Research (ÖGOR);Slovenian Society Informatika - Section for Operational Research;Croatian Operational Research Society, vol. 28(3), pages 1031-1048, September.
  100. Farid Flici & Frédéric Planchet, 2019. "Experience Prospective Life-Tables for the Algerian Retirees," Risks, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 7(2), pages 1-21, April.
  101. Yanlin Shi & Sixian Tang & Jackie Li, 2020. "A Two-Population Extension of the Exponential Smoothing State Space Model with a Smoothing Penalisation Scheme," Risks, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(3), pages 1-18, June.
  102. Dorina Lazar & Anuta Buiga & Adela Deaconu, 2016. "Common Stochastic Trends in European Mortality Levels: Testing and Consequences for Modeling Longevity Risk in Insurance," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Institute for Economic Forecasting, vol. 0(2), pages 152-168, June.
  103. Anca-Stefania Jijiie & Jennifer Alonso Garcia & Séverine Arnold (-Gaille), 2019. "Mortality by socio-economic class and its impact on the retirement schemes: How to render the systems fairer?," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/300032, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  104. Carlo Giovanni Camarda, 2019. "Smooth constrained mortality forecasting," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 41(38), pages 1091-1130.
  105. Vladimir M. Shkolnikov & Evgueni M. Andreev & Dmitri A. Jdanov & Domantas Jasilionis & Tapani Valkonen, 2009. "To what extent do rising mortality inequalities by education and marital status attenuate the general mortality decline? The case of Finland in 1971-2030," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2009-018, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
  106. Hatzopoulos, P. & Haberman, S., 2013. "Common mortality modeling and coherent forecasts. An empirical analysis of worldwide mortality data," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 320-337.
  107. Benjamin Seligman & Gabi Greenberg & Shripad Tuljapurkar, 2016. "Convergence in male and female life expectancy: Direction, age pattern, and causes," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 34(38), pages 1063-1074.
  108. Nan Li & Ronald Lee & Patrick Gerland, 2013. "Extending the Lee-Carter Method to Model the Rotation of Age Patterns of Mortality Decline for Long-Term Projections," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 50(6), pages 2037-2051, December.
  109. Li, Johnny Siu-Hang & Zhou, Rui & Hardy, Mary, 2015. "A step-by-step guide to building two-population stochastic mortality models," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 121-134.
  110. Andrew J. G. Cairns, 2013. "Robust Hedging of Longevity Risk," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 80(3), pages 621-648, September.
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