Longevity hedge effectiveness: a decomposition
We use a case study of a pension plan wishing to hedge the longevity risk in its pension liabilities at a future date. The plan has the choice of using either a customised hedge or an index hedge, with the degree of hedge effectiveness being closely related to the correlation between the value of the hedge and the value of the pension liability. The key contribution of this paper is to show how correlation and, therefore, hedge effectiveness can be broken down into contributions from a number of distinct types of risk factors. Our decomposition of the correlation indicates that population basis risk has a significant influence on the correlation. But recalibration risk as well as the length of the recalibration window are also important, as is cohort effect uncertainty. Having accounted for recalibration risk, additional parameter uncertainty has only a marginal impact on hedge effectiveness. Finally, the inclusion of Poisson risk only starts to become significant when the smaller population falls below about 10,000 members over age 50. Our case study shows that, at least for medium and large pension plans, longevity risk can be substantially hedged using index hedges as an alternative to customised longevity hedges. As a consequence, when the hedger's population involves more than about 10,000 members over age 50, index longevity hedges (in conjunction with the other components of an ALM strategy) can provide an effective and lower cost alternative to both a full buy-out of pension liabilities or even to a strategy using customised longevity hedges.
Volume (Year): 14 (2014)
Issue (Month): 2 (February)
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.tandfonline.com/RQUF20|
|Order Information:||Web: http://www.tandfonline.com/pricing/journal/RQUF20|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Cairns, Andrew J.G. & Blake, David & Dowd, Kevin & Coughlan, Guy D. & Epstein, David & Khalaf-Allah, Marwa, 2011. "Mortality density forecasts: An analysis of six stochastic mortality models," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 355-367, May.
- Jarner, Søren Fiig & Kryger, Esben Masotti, 2011. "Modelling Adult Mortality in Small Populations: The Saint Model," ASTIN Bulletin: The Journal of the International Actuarial Association, Cambridge University Press, vol. 41(02), pages 377-418, November.
- Dowd, Kevin & Cairns, Andrew & Blake, David & Coughlan, Guy & Khalaf-Allah, Marwa, 2011. "A gravity model of mortality rates for two related populations," MPRA Paper 35738, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Denuit, M. & Haberman, S. & Renshaw, A.E., 2010. "Comonotonic Approximations to Quantiles of Life Annuity Conditional Expected Present Values: Extensions to General Arima Models and Comparison with the Bootstrap," ASTIN Bulletin: The Journal of the International Actuarial Association, Cambridge University Press, vol. 40(01), pages 331-349, May.
- Andrew J. G. Cairns & David Blake & Kevin Dowd, 2006. "A Two-Factor Model for Stochastic Mortality with Parameter Uncertainty: Theory and Calibration," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 73(4), pages 687-718.
- Wolfgang Reichmuth & Samad Sarferaz, 2008. "Bayesian Demographic Modeling and Forecasting: An Application to U.S. Mortality," SFB 649 Discussion Papers SFB649DP2008-052, Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
- Blake, D. & Cairns, A. J. G. & Dowd, K., 2006. "Living with Mortality: Longevity Bonds and Other Mortality-Linked Securities," British Actuarial Journal, Cambridge University Press, vol. 12(01), pages 153-197, March.
- Nan Li & Ronald Lee, 2005. "Coherent mortality forecasts for a group of populations: An extension of the lee-carter method," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 42(3), pages 575-594, August.
- Czado, Claudia & Delwarde, Antoine & Denuit, Michel, 2005. "Bayesian Poisson log-bilinear mortality projections," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 260-284, June.
- Coughlan, Guy & Khalaf-Allah, Marwa & Ye, Yijing & Kumar, Sumit & Cairns, Andrew & Blake, David & Dowd, Kevin, 2011. "Longevity hedging 101: A framework for longevity basis risk analysis and hedge effectiveness," MPRA Paper 35743, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Kogure, Atsuyuki & Kurachi, Yoshiyuki, 2010. "A Bayesian approach to pricing longevity risk based on risk-neutral predictive distributions," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 162-172, February.
- Olivieri, Annamaria & Pitacco, Ermanno, 2009. "Stochastic Mortality: The Impact on Target Capital," ASTIN Bulletin: The Journal of the International Actuarial Association, Cambridge University Press, vol. 39(02), pages 541-563, November.
- Dowd, Kevin & Cairns, Andrew J.G. & Blake, David & Coughlan, Guy D. & Epstein, David & Khalaf-Allah, Marwa, 2010. "Evaluating the goodness of fit of stochastic mortality models," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(3), pages 255-265, December.
- Blake, David & Boardman, Tom & Cairns, Andrew, 2010. "Sharing longevity risk: Why governments should issue longevity bonds," MPRA Paper 34184, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Carter, Lawrence R. & Lee, Ronald D., 1992. "Modeling and forecasting US sex differentials in mortality," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 393-411, November.
- Wills, Samuel & Sherris, Michael, 2010. "Securitization, structuring and pricing of longevity risk," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 173-185, February.
- Brouhns, Natacha & Denuit, Michel & Vermunt, Jeroen K., 2002. "A Poisson log-bilinear regression approach to the construction of projected lifetables," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 373-393, December.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:taf:quantf:v:14:y:2014:i:2:p:217-235. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Michael McNulty)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.