IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/zbw/daredp/1601.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Price signals and supply responses for staple food crops in SSA countries

Author

Listed:
  • Magrini, Emiliano
  • Balié, Jean
  • Morales Opazo, Cristian

Abstract

Several studies have focused on estimating the supply response of farmers in Sub Saharan Africa.This literature has used a variety of approaches and has generally concluded that price elasticities of supply were low or very low. However, only a few analyses have gone beyond estimating the aggregate supply response for the sector as whole or the specific case of cash crops. In most cases, data scarcity especially on producer prices has been the main limiting factor. In this paper, we revisit this question focusing on the supply response of main staple food crops in selected Sub Saharan African (SSA) countries. We use an innovative dataset recently developed by FAO's "Monitoring and Analysing Food and Agricultural Policies" (MAFAP) programme which provides prices at the producer, wholesale, and border levels for selected value chains. Using dynamic panel techniques, we are able to test how acreage, production and yields respond to price signals and other non-price factors over the recent food price crises (2005-2013).We observe that farmers producing staple food crops react to real price signals, even if with a limited intensity. Moreover, our results suggest that direct price incentives arising from border protection and government intervention in domestic markets and price shocks at the border are more important than macroeconomic policies in influencing farmers' decisions. We also show that omitting marketing costs from the supply response function leads to underestimation of the price elasticity. Conversely, using wholesale instead of farm gate prices as proxy for producer prices leads to overestimation of the price elasticity.

Suggested Citation

  • Magrini, Emiliano & Balié, Jean & Morales Opazo, Cristian, 2016. "Price signals and supply responses for staple food crops in SSA countries," DARE Discussion Papers 1601, Georg-August University of Göttingen, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development (DARE).
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:daredp:1601
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/126553/1/846311224.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Binder, Michael & Hsiao, Cheng & Pesaran, M. Hashem, 2005. "Estimation And Inference In Short Panel Vector Autoregressions With Unit Roots And Cointegration," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 21(4), pages 795-837, August.
    2. Bruce L. Gardner, 1975. "The Farm-Retail Price Spread in a Competitive Food Industry," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 57(3), pages 399-409.
    3. Alfons Oude Lansink, 1999. "Area Allocation Under Price Uncertainty on Dutch Arable Farms," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(1), pages 93-105, January.
    4. Kanlaya J. Barr & Bruce A. Babcock & Miguel A. Carriquiry & Andre M. Nassar & Leila Harfuch, 2011. "Agricultural Land Elasticities in the United States and Brazil," Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 33(3), pages 449-462.
    5. Nigel Key & Elisabeth Sadoulet & Alain De Janvry, 2000. "Transactions Costs and Agricultural Household Supply Response," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 82(2), pages 245-259.
    6. Svendsen, M. & Trava, J. & Johnson, S. H., 1997. "Lessons from the International Workshop on Participatory Irrigation Management: Benefits and Second Generation Problems," Conference Papers h020241, International Water Management Institute.
    7. Rainer Thiele, 2003. "Price Incentives, Non‐price Factors and Agricultural Production in Sub‐Saharan Africa: A Cointegration Analysis," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 15(2‐3), pages 425-438.
    8. David Roodman, 2009. "How to do xtabond2: An introduction to difference and system GMM in Stata," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 9(1), pages 86-136, March.
    9. Bernhard Brümmer & Stephan von Cramon-Taubadel & Sergiy Zorya, 2009. "The impact of market and policy instability on price transmission between wheat and flour in Ukraine," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 36(2), pages 203-230, June.
    10. Imai, Katsushi S. & Gaiha, Raghav & Thapa, Ganesh, 2011. "Supply response to changes in agricultural commodity prices in Asian countries," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 61-75, February.
    11. Barrett, Christopher B., 2008. "Smallholder market participation: Concepts and evidence from eastern and southern Africa," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 299-317, August.
    12. Marc Nerlove, 1956. "Estimates of the Elasticities of Supply of Selected Agricultural Commodities," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 38(2), pages 496-509.
    13. Kym Anderson & William A. Masters, 2009. "Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Africa," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 2607.
    14. Kherallah, Mylène & Delgado, Christopher L. & Gabre-Madhin, Eleni Z. & Minot, Nicholas & Johnson, Michael, 2002. "Reforming agricultural markets in Africa," Food policy statements 38, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    15. Kym Anderson, 2009. "Distortions to Agricultural Versus Nonagricultural Producer Incentives," Annual Review of Resource Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 1(1), pages 55-74, September.
    16. Townsend, R.F., 1999. "Agriculture Incentives in Sub-Saharan Africa. Policy Challanges," Papers 444, World Bank - Technical Papers.
    17. Stephen Knack & Philip Keefer, 1995. "Institutions And Economic Performance: Cross‐Country Tests Using Alternative Institutional Measures," Economics and Politics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 7(3), pages 207-227, November.
    18. Bingxin Yu & Fengwei Liu & Liangzhi You, 2012. "Dynamic Agricultural Supply Response Under Economic Transformation: A Case Study of Henan, China," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 94(2), pages 370-376.
    19. Mekbib G. Haile & Matthias Kalkuhl & Joachim von Braun, 2016. "Worldwide Acreage and Yield Response to International Price Change and Volatility: A Dynamic Panel Data Analysis for Wheat, Rice, Corn, and Soybeans," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 98(1), pages 172-190.
    20. Coyle, Barry T., 1993. "On Modeling Systems Of Crop Acreage Demands," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 18(1), pages 1-13, July.
    21. Stephen R. Bond, 2002. "Dynamic panel data models: a guide to micro data methods and practice," Portuguese Economic Journal, Springer;Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao, vol. 1(2), pages 141-162, August.
    22. Hall, Robert E & Jones, Charles I, 1997. "Levels of Economic Activity across Countries," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(2), pages 173-177, May.
    23. Mamingi, Nlandu, 1997. "The impact of prices and macroeconomic policies on agricultural supply: a synthesis of available results," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 16(1), pages 17-34, March.
    24. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
    25. Anderson, Kym, 2009. "Five Decades of Distortions to Agricultural Incentives," Agricultural Distortions Working Paper Series 48742, World Bank.
    26. World Bank, 2015. "World Development Indicators 2015," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 21634.
    27. Binswanger, Hans & Yang, Maw-Cheng & Bowers, Alan & Mundlak, Yair, 1987. "On the determinants of cross-country aggregate agricultural supply," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 36(1-2), pages 111-131.
    28. Knack, Stephen & Keefer, Philip, 1995. "Institutions and Economic Performance: Cross-Country Tests Using Alternative Institutional Indicators," MPRA Paper 23118, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    29. Haile, Mekbib G. & Kalkuhl, Matthias & von Braun, Joachim, 2013. "Short-term global crop acreage response to international food prices and implications of volatility," Discussion Papers 145308, University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF).
    30. Braulke, Michael, 1982. "A Note on the Nerlove Model of Agricultural Supply Response," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 23(1), pages 241-244, February.
    31. David Roodman, 2009. "A Note on the Theme of Too Many Instruments," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 71(1), pages 135-158, February.
    32. Andrew McKay & Oliver Morrissey & Charlotte Vaillant, 1998. "Aggregate Export and Food Crop Supply Response in Tanzania," Discussion Papers 98/4, University of Nottingham, CREDIT.
    33. Jeffrey D. Vitale & Hamady Djourra & Aminata Sidibé, 2009. "Estimating the supply response of cotton and cereal crops in smallholder production systems: recent evidence from Mali," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 40(5), pages 519-533, September.
    34. Jochen Meyer & Stephan von Cramon‐Taubadel, 2004. "Asymmetric Price Transmission: A Survey," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(3), pages 581-611, November.
    35. J. Mohan Rao, 1989. "Agricultural Supply Response: A Survey," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 3(1), pages 1-22, March.
    36. Kherallah, Mylene & Delgado, Christopher L. & Gabre-Madhin, Eleni Z. & Minot, Nicholas & Johnson, Mi (ed.), 2002. "Reforming agricultural markets in Africa: Achievements and challenges," IFPRI books, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), number 0-8018-7145-X.
    37. Robert E. Hall & Charles I. Jones, 1999. "Why do Some Countries Produce So Much More Output Per Worker than Others?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 114(1), pages 83-116.
    38. Michael J. Roberts & Wolfram Schlenker, 2013. "Identifying Supply and Demand Elasticities of Agricultural Commodities: Implications for the US Ethanol Mandate," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 103(6), pages 2265-2295, October.
    39. Stephen Bond, 2002. "Dynamic panel data models: a guide to microdata methods and practice," CeMMAP working papers CWP09/02, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
    40. Parrott, Scott D. & McIntosh, Christopher S., 1996. "Nonconstant Price Expectations and Acreage Response: The Case of Cotton Production in Georgia," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 28(1), pages 203-210, July.
    41. Julie Subervie, 2008. "The Variable Response of Agricultural Supply to World Price Instability in Developing Countries," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 59(1), pages 72-92, February.
    42. Di-Marcantonio, Federica & Morales-Opazo, Cristian & Barreiro-Hurlé, Jesús & Demeke, Mulat, 2014. "Determinants of food production in Sub Saharan Africa: the impact of policy, market access and governance," 2014 International Congress, August 26-29, 2014, Ljubljana, Slovenia 182683, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    43. Keefer, Philip & Knack, Stephen, 1997. "Why Don't Poor Countries Catch Up? A Cross-National Test of Institutional Explanation," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 35(3), pages 590-602, July.
    44. Marc Nerlove, 1958. "Adaptive Expectations and Cobweb Phenomena," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 72(2), pages 227-240.
    45. Kym Anderson & Will Martin, 2009. "Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Asia," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 2611.
    46. Michael J. Roberts & Wolfram Schlenker, 2009. "World Supply and Demand of Food Commodity Calories," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 91(5), pages 1235-1242.
    47. Muchapondwa, Edwin, 2009. "Supply response of Zimbabwean agriculture: 1970–1999," African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, African Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 3(1), pages 1-15, March.
    48. Mekbib G. Haile & Matthias Kalkuhl & Joachim Braun, 2014. "Inter- and intra-seasonal crop acreage response to international food prices and implications of volatility," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 45(6), pages 693-710, November.
    49. Chavas, Jean-Paul, 2000. "On information and market dynamics: The case of the U.S. beef market," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 24(5-7), pages 833-853, June.
    50. Nickell, Stephen J, 1981. "Biases in Dynamic Models with Fixed Effects," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(6), pages 1417-1426, November.
    51. Anderson, Kym & Swinnen, Johan F.M., 2009. "Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Eastern Europe and Central Asia," Agricultural Distortions Working Paper Series 48624, World Bank.
    52. Askari, Hossein & Cummings, John Thomas, 1977. "Estimating Agricultural Supply Response with the Nerlove Model: A Survey," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 18(2), pages 257-292, June.
    53. Rao, J. Mohan, 1989. "Agricultural supply response: A survey," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 3(1), pages 1-22, March.
    54. Nlandu Mamingi, 1997. "The impact of prices and macroeconomic policies on agricultural supply: a synthesis of available results," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 16(1), pages 17-34, March.
    55. Barry T. Coyle, 1999. "Risk Aversion and Yield Uncertainty in Duality Models of Production: A Mean-Variance Approach," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 81(3), pages 553-567.
    56. Kym Anderson, 2009. "Distortions to Agricultural Incentives : A Global Perspective, 1955-2007," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 9436.
    57. Barr, Kanlaya Jintanakul, 2011. "Agricultural Land Elasticities in the United States and Brazil," Staff General Research Papers Archive 34893, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    58. Alfons Weersink & Juan H. Cabas & Edward Olale, 2010. "Acreage Response to Weather, Yield, and Price," Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics/Revue canadienne d'agroeconomie, Canadian Agricultural Economics Society/Societe canadienne d'agroeconomie, vol. 58(1), pages 57-72, March.
    59. Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
    60. Leaver, Rosemary, 2004. "Measuring the supply response function of tobacco in Zimbabwe," Agrekon, Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA), vol. 43(1), pages 1-19, March.
    61. Windmeijer, Frank, 2005. "A finite sample correction for the variance of linear efficient two-step GMM estimators," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 126(1), pages 25-51, May.
    62. John Baffes & Bruce Gardner, 2003. "The transmission of world commodity prices to domestic markets under policy reforms in developing countries," Journal of Economic Policy Reform, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(3), pages 159-180.
    63. Chavas, Jean-Paul & Pope, Rulon D. & Kao, Robert S., 1983. "An Analysis Of The Role Of Futures Prices, Cash Prices And Government Programs In Acreage Response," Western Journal of Agricultural Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 8(1), pages 1-7, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Sauthoff, Saramena & Danne, Michael & Mußhoff, Oliver, 2017. "To switch or not to switch? – Understanding German consumers’ willingness to pay for green electricity tariff attributes," Department of Agricultural and Rural Development (DARE) Discussion Papers 260771, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development (DARE).
    2. Nestor Le Clech & Carmen Fillat‐Castejón, 2017. "International aggregate agricultural supply for grain and oilseed: The effects of efficiency and technological change," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 33(4), pages 569-585, September.
    3. Balie, Jean & Strutt, Anna & Nelgen, Signe & Narayanan, 2018. "Infrastructure investments for improved market access in subSaharan Africa: A CGE analysis," African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, African Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 13(2), June.
    4. Feil, Jan-Henning & Mußhoff, Oliver, 2016. "Analysing investment and disinvestment decisions under uncertainty, firm heterogeneity and tradable output permits," DARE Discussion Papers 1602, Georg-August University of Göttingen, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development (DARE).
    5. Binfield, Julian & Boulanger, Pierre & Davids, Tracy & Dudu, Hasan & Ferrari, Emanuele & Mainar-Causape, Alfredo & Meyer, Ferdi, 2019. "Enhancing CGE analysis with PE modelling of Kenyan agricultural and trade policy reforms," 2019 Sixth International Conference, September 23-26, 2019, Abuja, Nigeria 295839, African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE).
    6. Balié, Jean & Magrini, Emiliano & Morales Opazo, Cristian, 2016. "Cereal price shocks and volatility in Sub-Saharan Africa: What does really matter for farmers' welfare?," DARE Discussion Papers 1607, Georg-August University of Göttingen, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development (DARE).
    7. Vijay Laxmi Pandey & S. Mahendra Dev & Ranjeeta Mishra, 2019. "Pulses in eastern India: production barriers and consumption coping strategies," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 11(3), pages 609-622, June.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Md Zabid Iqbal & Bruce A. Babcock, 2018. "Global growing‐area elasticities of key agricultural crops estimated using dynamic heterogeneous panel methods," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 49(6), pages 681-690, November.
    2. Donato, Romano & Carraro, Alessandro, 2015. "Modelling Acreage, Production and Yield Supply Response to Domestic Price Volatility," 2015 Fourth Congress, June 11-12, 2015, Ancona, Italy 207278, Italian Association of Agricultural and Applied Economics (AIEAA).
    3. Anbes Tenaye, 2020. "New Evidence Using a Dynamic Panel Data Approach: Cereal Supply Response in Smallholder Agriculture in Ethiopia," Economies, MDPI, vol. 8(3), pages 1-24, July.
    4. Klomp, Jeroen & Hoogezand, Barry, 2018. "Natural disasters and agricultural protection: A panel data analysis," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 404-417.
    5. Haile, Mekbib G. & Kalkuhl, Matthias, 2013. "Agricultural supply response to international food prices and price volatility: a crosscountry panel analysis," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 149630, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    6. Nestor Le Clech & Carmen Fillat‐Castejón, 2017. "International aggregate agricultural supply for grain and oilseed: The effects of efficiency and technological change," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 33(4), pages 569-585, September.
    7. Rezwanul Parvez & David C Roberts & David Ripplinger, 2017. "Factors Impacting Crop Acreage Decision: A Case Study of North Dakota Agriculture," Agricultural Development, Sophia, vol. 1(1), pages 16-36.
    8. Eric Akobeng, 2017. "Gross Capital Formation, Institutions and Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of Economic Policy Reform, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(2), pages 136-164, April.
    9. Fendel Tanja, 2016. "Migration and Regional Wage Disparities in Germany," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 236(1), pages 3-35, February.
    10. Scott, K. Rebecca, 2015. "Demand and price uncertainty: Rational habits in international gasoline demand," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 79(C), pages 40-49.
    11. Hyunseok Kim & GianCarlo Moschini, 2018. "The Dynamics of Supply: U.S. Corn and Soybeans in the Biofuel Era," Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications 18-wp579, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.
    12. Medina-Durango, Carlos Alberto & Posso Suárez, Christian Manuel & Tamayo, Jorge A. & Monsalve, Emma, 2012. "Dinámica de la demanda laboral en la industria manufacturera colombiana 1993-2009 : una estimación panel VAR," Chapters, in: Arango-Thomas, Luis Eduardo & Hamann-Salcedo, Franz Alonso (ed.), El mercado de trabajo en Colombia : hechos, tendencias e instituciones, chapter 7, pages 289-330, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    13. Mekbib G. Haile & Matthias Kalkuhl & Joachim Braun, 2014. "Inter- and intra-seasonal crop acreage response to international food prices and implications of volatility," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 45(6), pages 693-710, November.
    14. Schwerhoff, Gregor & Wehkamp, Johanna, 2018. "Export tariffs combined with public investments as a forest conservation policy instrument," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 69-84.
    15. Mateo Zokalj, 2016. "The impact of population aging on public finance in the European Union," Financial Theory and Practice, Institute of Public Finance, vol. 40(4), pages 383-412.
    16. Haile, Mekbib G. & Kalkuhl, Matthias & von Braun, Joachim, 2013. "Short-term global crop acreage response to international food prices and implications of volatility," Discussion Papers 145308, University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF).
    17. Juan Federico & Joan-Lluis Capelleras, 2015. "The heterogeneous dynamics between growth and profits: the case of young firms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 44(2), pages 231-253, February.
    18. Armey, Laura E. & McNab, Robert M., 2018. "Expenditure decentralization and natural resources," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 52-61.
    19. Tsun Se Cheong & Yanrui Wu, 2013. "Globalization and Regional Inequality," Economics Discussion / Working Papers 13-10, The University of Western Australia, Department of Economics.
    20. Ünal Töngür & Adem Yavuz Elveren, 2017. "The nexus of economic growth, military expenditures, and income inequality," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 51(4), pages 1821-1842, July.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    supply responses; price incentives; agriculture commodities; dynamic panel data;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • Q11 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Aggregate Supply and Demand Analysis; Prices
    • Q18 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Policy; Food Policy
    • C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • O55 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Africa

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:zbw:daredp:1601. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/iagoede.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/iagoede.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.