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The Nexus of Economic Growth, Military Expenditures, and Income Inequality

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  • Unal Tongur

    (Akdeniz University, Department of Economics)

  • Adem Yavuz Elveren

    (Fitchburg State University, Department of Economics, History and Political Science)

Abstract

This paper examines the effect of military expenditures on economic growth by utilizing dynamic panel data analysis for 82 countries for the period of 1988-2008. Considering the possible effect of inequality on the military expenditures-economic growth nexus, this paper incorporates inequality along with its interaction with human capital into an augmented Solow growth model. The general finding is that military expenditures have a negative impact on economic growth, valid for several model specifications and sensitivity analyses. The negative impact holds when heterogeneity stemming from different country groups (e.g. development level, arms trade, fuel dependency) is considered. Also, the findings show that negative impact of military expenditure on growth for arms exporter and/or arms importer countries is weaker than those for other countries. Regarding income inequality and human capital, the findings suggest that human capital has a positive effect on growth, as expected. Income inequality on the other hand, has negative direct effect on economic growth. Considering these two variables together, the findings show that income inequality deteriorates growth for lower levels of human capital, whereas the impact of inequality on growth turns out to be positive for higher levels of human capital.

Suggested Citation

  • Unal Tongur & Adem Yavuz Elveren, 2016. "The Nexus of Economic Growth, Military Expenditures, and Income Inequality," EconWorld Working Papers 16003, WERI-World Economic Research Institute, revised Apr 2016.
  • Handle: RePEc:ana:wpaper:16003
    DOI: 10.22440/EconWorld.WP.2016.003
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    Cited by:

    1. Antonella Biscione & Raul Caruso, 2021. "Military Expenditures and Income Inequality Evidence from a Panel of Transition Countries (1990-2015)," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(1), pages 46-67, January.
    2. Adem Yavuz Elveren & Sara Hsu, 2018. "The Effect of Military Expenditure on Profit Rates: Evidence from Major Countries," World Journal of Applied Economics, WERI-World Economic Research Institute, vol. 4(2), pages 75-94, December.
    3. Adem Elveren & Valentine M. Moghadam, 2019. "The impact of militarization on gender inequality and female labor force participation," Working Papers 1307, Economic Research Forum, revised 21 Aug 2019.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Military expenditure; growth; income inequality; human capital; Solow growth model;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • H56 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - National Security and War
    • O11 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development

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