IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/uza/wpaper/26637.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Social media and inclusive human development in Africa

Author

Listed:
  • Asongu, Simplice A
  • Odhiambo, Nicholas M

Abstract

This study investigates the relationship between social media and inclusive human development in 49 African countries for the year 2012. Social media is measured with Facebook penetration whereas inclusive human development is proxied by the inequality- adjusted human development index. The empirical evidence is based on Ordinary Least Squares, Tobit and Quantile regressions. Ordinary Least Squares provided baseline results, Tobit regressions account for the limited range in the outcome variable while Quantile regressions are engaged to control for initial levels of inequality-adjusted human development. From Ordinary Least Squares and Tobit results, Facebook penetration is positively associated with inclusive human development. Quantile regressions confirm this positive nexus and further establish that the positive association is slightly higher in magnitude in the above-median sub-sample. From a comparative assessment, it is apparent that with the exception of the resource-wealth sub-samples, higher levels of Facebook penetration are associated with comparatively higher levels of inclusive human development. Accordingly, the positive association between Facebook penetration and inclusive human development is: (i) a positive function of income levels and (ii) more apparent in Middle East and North African countries (compared to Sub-Saharan African countries), English common law countries (compared to their French civil law counterparts), and coastal countries (in relation to landlocked countries).

Suggested Citation

  • Asongu, Simplice A & Odhiambo, Nicholas M, 2020. "Social media and inclusive human development in Africa," Working Papers 26637, University of South Africa, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:uza:wpaper:26637
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://uir.unisa.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10500/26637/Social%20media%20and%20inclusive%20human%20development%20in%20Africa.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. La Porta, Rafael & Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert, 1999. "The Quality of Government," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 15(1), pages 222-279, April.
    2. Vanessa Simen Tchamyou, 2020. "Education, lifelong learning, inequality and financial access: evidence from African countries," Contemporary Social Science, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(1), pages 7-25, January.
    3. Antoci, Angelo & Bonelli, Laura & Paglieri, Fabio & Reggiani, Tommaso & Sabatini, Fabio, 2019. "Civility and trust in social media," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 160(C), pages 83-99.
    4. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2019. "Environmental degradation and inclusive human development in sub‐Saharan Africa," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(1), pages 25-34, January.
    5. Simplice A. Asongu, 2018. "Conditional Determinants of Mobile Phones Penetration and Mobile Banking in Sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 9(1), pages 81-135, March.
    6. Jha, Chandan Kumar & Kodila-Tedika, Oasis, 2020. "Does social media promote democracy? Some empirical evidence," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 271-290.
    7. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2017. "Foreign Aid and Inclusive Development: Updated Evidence from Africa, 2005–2012," Social Science Quarterly, Southwestern Social Science Association, vol. 98(1), pages 282-298, March.
    8. Vanessa S. Tchamyou & Simplice A. Asongu, 2017. "Information Sharing and Financial Sector Development in Africa," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(1), pages 24-49, January.
    9. Jha, Chandan Kumar & Sarangi, Sudipta, 2017. "Does social media reduce corruption?," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 60-71.
    10. Kodila-Tedika, Oasis & Asongu, Simplice, 2015. "The Effect of Intelligence on Financial Development: A Cross-Country Comparison," MPRA Paper 67295, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Simplice A. Asongu & John Kuada, 2020. "Building knowledge economies in Africa: an introduction," Contemporary Social Science, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(1), pages 1-6, January.
    12. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu & Stella-Maris I. Orim & Chris Pyke, 2019. "Crime and Social Media," Research Africa Network Working Papers 19/003, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    13. Simplice Asongu & Ndemaze Asongu, 2018. "The comparative exploration of mobile money services in inclusive development," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 45(1), pages 124-139, January.
    14. Asongu, Simplice A. & Odhiambo, Nicholas M., 2019. "Governance and social media in African countries: An empirical investigation," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(5), pages 411-425.
    15. Asongu, Simplice A. & Le Roux, Sara & Biekpe, Nicholas, 2017. "Environmental degradation, ICT and inclusive development in Sub-Saharan Africa," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 111(C), pages 353-361.
    16. Joseph Ikechukwu Uduji & Elda Nduka Okolo-Obasi & Simplice Anutecia Asongu, 2019. "Electronic wallet technology and the enabling environment of smallholder farmers in Nigeria," Agricultural Finance Review, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 79(5), pages 666-688, October.
    17. Simplice A. Asongu, 2017. "Knowledge Economy Gaps, Policy Syndromes, and Catch-Up Strategies: Fresh South Korean Lessons to Africa," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 8(1), pages 211-253, March.
    18. Asongu, Simplice & Batuo, Enowbi & Nwachukwu, Jacinta & Tchamyou, Vanessa, 2018. "Is information diffusion a threat to market power for financial access? Insights from the African banking industry," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 88-104.
    19. Vanessa S. Tchamyou & Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2019. "The Role of ICT in Modulating the Effect of Education and Lifelong Learning on Income Inequality and Economic Growth in Africa," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 31(3), pages 261-274, September.
    20. Jeremiah O. Ejemeyovwi & Evans S. Osabuohien, 2020. "Investigating the relevance of mobile technology adoption on inclusive growth in West Africa," Contemporary Social Science, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(1), pages 48-61, January.
    21. Simplice A. Asongu, 2013. "How has Mobile Phone Penetration Stimulated Financial Development in Africa?," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(1), pages 7-18, April.
    22. Montfort Mlachila & René Tapsoba & Sampawende J. A. Tapsoba, 2017. "A Quality of Growth Index for Developing Countries: A Proposal," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 134(2), pages 675-710, November.
    23. Simplice A. Asongu, 2013. "Fighting corruption in Africa: do existing corruption-control levels matter?," International Journal of Development Issues, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 12(1), pages 36-52, April.
    24. Vanessa Simen Tchamyou, 2017. "The Role of Knowledge Economy in African Business," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 8(4), pages 1189-1228, December.
    25. Simplice A. Asongu & Stella-Maris I. Orim & Rexon T. Nting, 2019. "Terrorism and Social Media: Global Evidence," Journal of Global Information Technology Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(3), pages 208-228, July.
    26. Beck, Thorsten & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Levine, Ross, 2003. "Law and finance: why does legal origin matter?," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 653-675, December.
    27. Robert Lawrence Afutu-Kotey & Katherine V. Gough & George Owusu, 2017. "Young Entrepreneurs in the Mobile Telephony Sector in Ghana: From Necessities to Aspirations," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(4), pages 476-491, October.
    28. Thierry PENARD & Nicolas POUSSING & Gabriel ZOMO YEBE & Philémon NSI ELLA, 2012. "Comparing the Determinants of Internet and Cell Phone Use in Africa: Evidence from Gabon," Communications & Strategies, IDATE, Com&Strat dept., vol. 1(86), pages 65-83, 2nd quart.
    29. Simplice Asongu & Agyenim Boateng, 2018. "Introduction to Special Issue: Mobile Technologies and Inclusive Development in Africa," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 297-301, July.
    30. Vanessa S. Tchamyou, 2019. "The Role of Information Sharing in Modulating the Effect of Financial Access on Inequality," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(3), pages 317-338, July.
    31. Simplice Asongu, 2014. "The impact of health worker migration on development dynamics: evidence of wealth effects from Africa," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 15(2), pages 187-201, March.
    32. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2017. "The Comparative Inclusive Human Development of Globalisation in Africa," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 134(3), pages 1027-1050, December.
    33. Joseph I. Uduji & Elda N. Okolo-Obasi & Simplice A. Asongu, 2018. "The impact of e-wallet on informal farm entrepreneurship development in rural Nigeria," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 18/047, African Governance and Development Institute..
    34. Oasis Kodila-Tedika, 2021. "Natural resource governance: does social media matter?," Mineral Economics, Springer;Raw Materials Group (RMG);Luleå University of Technology, vol. 34(1), pages 127-140, April.
    35. Simplice Asongu, 2014. "African Development: Beyond Income Convergence," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 82(3), pages 334-353, September.
    36. David Nemer, 2016. "Online Favela: The Use of Social Media by the Marginalized in Brazil," Information Technology for Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(3), pages 364-379, July.
    37. Turk Ariss, Rima, 2010. "On the implications of market power in banking: Evidence from developing countries," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 765-775, April.
    38. Asongu, Simplice & Nwachukwu, Jacinta C., 2015. "Finance and Inclusive Human Development: Evidence from Africa," MPRA Paper 71787, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    39. Simplice Asongu & Vanessa Tchamyou & Ndemaze Asongu & Nina Tchamyou, 2017. "The Comparative African Economics of Inclusive Development and Military Expenditure in Fighting Terrorism," Journal of African Development, African Finance and Economic Association (AFEA), vol. 19(2), pages 77-91.
    40. Joseph I. Uduji & Elda N. Okolo‐Obasi & Simplice A. Asongu, 2019. "Growth Enhancement Support Scheme (GESS) and Farmers’ Fertilizer Use in Rural Nigeria," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 31(3), pages 348-363, September.
    41. M. Humbani & M. Wiese, 2018. "A Cashless Society for All: Determining Consumers’ Readiness to Adopt Mobile Payment Services," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 409-429, July.
    42. Okada, Keisuke & Samreth, Sovannroeun, 2012. "The effect of foreign aid on corruption: A quantile regression approach," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 115(2), pages 240-243.
    43. Howells, Jeremy, 2005. "Innovation and regional economic development: A matter of perspective?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1220-1234, October.
    44. Lashitew, Addisu A. & van Tulder, Rob & Liasse, Yann, 2019. "Mobile phones for financial inclusion: What explains the diffusion of mobile money innovations?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(5), pages 1201-1215.
    45. Moses Mwenda Muthinja & Chimwemwe Chipeta, 2018. "What Drives Financial Innovations in Kenya’s Commercial Banks? An Empirical Study on Firm and Macro-Level Drivers of Branchless Banking," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 385-408, July.
    46. Simplice Asongu, 2014. "Globalization (fighting), corruption and development: How are these phenomena linearly and nonlinearly related in wealth effects?," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 41(3), pages 346-369, May.
    47. Petrakis, P. E. & Stamatakis, D., 2002. "Growth and educational levels: a comparative analysis," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 513-521, October.
    48. Joshua Yindenaba Abor & Mohammed Amidu & Haruna Issahaku, 2018. "Mobile Telephony, Financial Inclusion and Inclusive Growth," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 430-453, July.
    49. Joseph I. Uduji & Elda N. Okolo-Obasi & Simplice A. Asongu, 2019. "Growth Enhancement Support Scheme (GESS) and Farmers’ Fertilizer Use in Rural Nigeria," Working Papers 19/055, European Xtramile Centre of African Studies (EXCAS).
    50. George Okello Candiya Bongomin & Joseph M Ntayi & John C. Munene & Charles Akol Malinga, 2018. "Mobile Money and Financial Inclusion in Sub-Saharan Africa: the Moderating Role of Social Networks," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 361-384, July.
    51. repec:hrv:faseco:30747160 is not listed on IDEAS
    52. Simplice Asongu, 2014. "Financial development dynamic thresholds of financial globalization: Evidence from Africa," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 41(2), pages 166-195, March.
    53. Rosenberg, Nathan, 1972. "Factors affecting the diffusion of technology," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 3-33.
    54. Elizabeth Asiedu, 2014. "Does Foreign Aid In Education Promote Economic Growth? Evidence From Sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of African Development, African Finance and Economic Association (AFEA), vol. 16(1), pages 37-59.
    55. Brian Nicholson & Yanuar Nugroho & Nimmi Rangaswamy, 2016. "Social Media for Development: Outlining Debates, Theory and Praxis," Information Technology for Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(3), pages 357-363, July.
    56. Fu Lai Tony Yu & Diana S. Kwan, 2015. "African Entrepreneurs and International Coordination in Petty Businesses: The Case of Low-End Mobile Phones Sourcing in Hong Kong," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(1-2), pages 66-83, January.
    57. Haruna Issahaku & Benjamin Musah Abu & Paul Kwame Nkegbe, 2018. "Does the Use of Mobile Phones by Smallholder Maize Farmers Affect Productivity in Ghana?," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 302-322, July.
    58. Joseph I. Uduji & Elda N. Okolo-Obasi, 2018. "Adoption of improved crop varieties by involving farmers in the e-wallet program in Nigeria," Research Africa Network Working Papers 18/062, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    59. Richard T. Carson & Yixiao Sun, 2007. "The Tobit model with a non-zero threshold," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 10(3), pages 488-502, November.
    60. Joseph I. Uduji & Elda N. Okolo-Obasi, 2018. "Adoption of improved crop varieties by involving farmers in the e-wallet program in Nigeria," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 18/063, African Governance and Development Institute..
    61. Dorothea Kleine, 2010. "ICT4WHAT?-Using the choice framework to operationalise the capability approach to development," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(5), pages 674-692.
    62. Aparna Gosavi, 2018. "Can Mobile Money Help Firms Mitigate the Problem of Access to Finance in Eastern sub-Saharan Africa?," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 343-360, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Asongu, Simplice A. & Agyemang-Mintah, Peter & Nting, Rexon T., 2021. "Law, mobile money drivers and mobile money innovations in developing countries," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 168(C).
    2. Acha-Anyi, Asongu & Acha-Anyi, Paul N. & Asongu, Simplice A. & Tchamyou, Vanessa S., 2020. "Social media for health promotion: A visual analysis of “TB proof” South Africa's Facebook page," Technology in Society, Elsevier, vol. 63(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Asongu, Simplice, 2020. "The Effects of Mobile Phone Technology, Knowledge Creation and Diffusion on Inclusive Human Development in Sub-Saharan Africa," MPRA Paper 107087, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Simplice A. Asongu, 0. "The Effects of Mobile Phone Technology, Knowledge Creation and Diffusion on Inclusive Human Development in Sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 0, pages 1-32.
    3. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2019. "Basic formal education quality, information technology, and inclusive human development in sub‐Saharan Africa," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(3), pages 419-428, May.
    4. Asongu, Simplice A. & Odhiambo, Nicholas M., 2019. "Governance and social media in African countries: An empirical investigation," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(5), pages 411-425.
    5. Asongu, Simplice A. & Uduji, Joseph I. & Okolo-Obasi, Elda N., 2019. "Homicide and social media: Global empirical evidence," Technology in Society, Elsevier, vol. 59(C).
    6. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2019. "Inequality and Gender Inclusion: Minimum ICT Policy Thresholds for Promoting Female Employment in Sub-Saharan Africa," Working Papers of The Association for Promoting of Women in Research and Development in Africa (ASPROWORDA). 19/008, The Association for Promoting of Women in Research and Development in Africa (ASPROWORDA).
    7. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu & Stella-Maris I. Orim & Chris Pyke, 2019. "Crime and Social Media," Research Africa Network Working Papers 19/003, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    8. Asongu, Simplice A. & Odhiambo, Nicholas M., 2020. "Inequality and gender inclusion: Minimum ICT policy thresholds for promoting female employment in Sub-Saharan Africa," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(4).
    9. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu & Chris Pyke, 2019. "The Comparative Economics of ICT, Environmental Degradation and Inclusive Human Development in Sub-Saharan Africa," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 143(3), pages 1271-1297, June.
    10. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2019. "Enhancing ICT for insurance in Africa," Review of Development Finance Journal, Chartered Institute of Development Finance, vol. 9(2), pages 16-27.
    11. Asongu, Simplice A. & Agyemang-Mintah, Peter & Nting, Rexon T., 2021. "Law, mobile money drivers and mobile money innovations in developing countries," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 168(C).
    12. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2018. "ICT, Financial Access and Gender Inclusion in the Formal Economic Sector: Evidence from Africa," The African Finance Journal, Africagrowth Institute, vol. 20(2), pages 45-65.
    13. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2020. "The Mobile Phone, Information Sharing, and Financial Sector Development in Africa: a Quantile Regression Approach," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 11(3), pages 1234-1269, September.
    14. Simplice A. Asongu & Stella-Maris I. Orim & Rexon T. Nting, 2019. "Terrorism and Social Media: Global Evidence," Journal of Global Information Technology Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(3), pages 208-228, July.
    15. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2018. "ICT, Financial Access and Gender Inclusion in the Formal Economic Sector: Evidence from Africa," Working Papers of The Association for Promoting of Women in Research and Development in Africa (ASPROWORDA). 18/001, The Association for Promoting of Women in Research and Development in Africa (ASPROWORDA).
    16. Asongu, Simplice & Acha-Anyi, Paul, 2020. "Enhancing ICT for Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa: Thresholds for Complementary Policies," MPRA Paper 103140, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2019. "How enhancing information and communication technology has affected inequality in Africa for sustainable development: An empirical investigation," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(4), pages 647-656, July.
    18. Asongu, Simplice A. & Odhiambo, Nicholas M., 2020. "Foreign direct investment, information technology and economic growth dynamics in Sub-Saharan Africa," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(1).
    19. Asongu, Simplice & le Roux, Sara & Nwachukwu, Jacinta & Pyke, Chris, 2018. "The Mobile Phone as an Argument for Good Governance in Sub-Saharan Africa," MPRA Paper 89364, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    20. Meniago, Christelle & Asongu, Simplice A., 2018. "Revisiting the finance-inequality nexus in a panel of African countries," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 399-419.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Social Media; Inclusive development; Income levels; Regions;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D74 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - Conflict; Conflict Resolution; Alliances; Revolutions
    • D83 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Search; Learning; Information and Knowledge; Communication; Belief; Unawareness
    • O30 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - General

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:uza:wpaper:26637. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/deusaza.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Shaun Donovan (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/deusaza.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.