IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/agd/wpaper/16-046.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Determinants of Mobile Phone Penetration: Panel Threshold Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa

Author

Listed:
  • Simplice Asongu

    (Yaoundé/Cameroun)

  • Jacinta C. Nwachukwu

    (Coventry University, UK)

Abstract

Despite the evolving literature on the development benefits of mobile phones, we still know very little about factors that influence their adoption. Using twenty five policy variables, we investigate determinants of mobile phone penetration in 49 Sub-Saharan African countries with data for the period 2000-2012. The empirical evidence is based on contemporary and non-contemporary OLS, Fixed effects, System GMM and Quantile regression techniques. The determinants are classified into six policy categories. They are: (i) macroeconomic, (ii) business/bank, (iii) market-related, (iv) knowledge economy, (v) external flows and (vi) human development. Results are presented in terms of threshold and non-threshold effects. The former has three main implications. First, there are increasing positive benefits in regulation quality, human development, foreign investment, education, urban population density and internet penetration. Second, there is evidence of decreasing positive effects from patent applications. Third, increasing negative impacts are established for foreign aid and return on equity. Non-threshold tendencies are discussed. Policy implications are also covered with emphasis on policy syndromes to enhance more targeted implications for worst performing nations.

Suggested Citation

  • Simplice Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2016. "Determinants of Mobile Phone Penetration: Panel Threshold Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 16/046, African Governance and Development Institute..
  • Handle: RePEc:agd:wpaper:16/046
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.afridev.org/RePEc/agd/agd-wpaper/Determinants-of-Mobile-phone-penetration-in-Sub-Saharan-Africa.pdf
    File Function: Revised version, 2016
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Asongu, Simplice A. & Nwachukwu, Jacinta C., 2016. "The Mobile Phone in the Diffusion of Knowledge for Institutional Quality in Sub-Saharan Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 133-147.
    2. Simplice A. Asongu, 2018. "Conditional Determinants of Mobile Phones Penetration and Mobile Banking in Sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 9(1), pages 81-135, March.
    3. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2017. "Foreign Aid and Inclusive Development: Updated Evidence from Africa, 2005–2012," Social Science Quarterly, Southwestern Social Science Association, vol. 98(1), pages 282-298, March.
    4. Vanessa S. Tchamyou & Simplice A. Asongu, 2017. "Information Sharing and Financial Sector Development in Africa," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(1), pages 24-49, January.
    5. Augustin Kwasi Fosu, 2013. "Growth of African Economies: Productivity, Policy Syndromes and the Importance of Institutions," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 22(4), pages 523-551, August.
    6. Simplice A. Asongu, 2017. "Knowledge Economy Gaps, Policy Syndromes, and Catch-Up Strategies: Fresh South Korean Lessons to Africa," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 8(1), pages 211-253, March.
    7. Madden, Gary & Coble-Neal, Grant & Dalzell, Brian, 2004. "A dynamic model of mobile telephony subscription incorporating a network effect," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 133-144, March.
    8. Simplice Asongu, 2015. "On Taxation, Political Accountability and Foreign Aid: Empirics to a Celebrated Literature," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 83(2), pages 180-198, June.
    9. Lavagnon Ika & Jan Saint-Macary, 2014. "Special Issue : Why Do Projects Fail in Africa?," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 151-155, December.
    10. Simplice A. Asongu, 2013. "How has Mobile Phone Penetration Stimulated Financial Development in Africa?," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(1), pages 7-18, April.
    11. Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
    12. Montfort Mlachila & René Tapsoba & Sampawende J. A. Tapsoba, 2017. "A Quality of Growth Index for Developing Countries: A Proposal," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 134(2), pages 675-710, November.
    13. David Roodman, 2009. "How to do xtabond2: An introduction to difference and system GMM in Stata," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 9(1), pages 86-136, March.
    14. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2016. "Foreign aid and governance in Africa," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(1), pages 69-88, January.
    15. Madden, Gary & Coble-Neal, Grant, 2004. "Economic determinants of global mobile telephony growth," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 519-534, December.
    16. Akpan, Uduak & Isihak, Salisu & Asongu, Simplice, 2014. "Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in Fast-Growing Economies: A Study of BRICS and MINT," MPRA Paper 56810, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Simplice A Asongu & Lieven De Moor, 2017. "Financial Globalisation Dynamic Thresholds for Financial Development: Evidence from Africa," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 29(1), pages 192-212, January.
    18. Simplice Asongu, 2016. "Reinventing Foreign Aid For Inclusive And Sustainable Development: Kuznets, Piketty And The Great Policy Reversal," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(4), pages 736-755, September.
    19. Narcyz Roztocki & H. Roland Weistroffer, 2016. "Conceptualizing and Researching the Adoption of ICT and the Impact on Socioeconomic Development," Information Technology for Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(4), pages 541-549, October.
    20. Vanessa Simen Tchamyou, 2017. "The Role of Knowledge Economy in African Business," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 8(4), pages 1189-1228, December.
    21. Mishra, Vishal & Singh Bisht, Shailendra, 2013. "Mobile banking in a developing economy: A customer-centric model for policy formulation," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 503-514.
    22. Beck, Thorsten & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Levine, Ross, 2003. "Law and finance: why does legal origin matter?," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 653-675, December.
    23. Robert Lawrence Afutu-Kotey & Katherine V. Gough & George Owusu, 2017. "Young Entrepreneurs in the Mobile Telephony Sector in Ghana: From Necessities to Aspirations," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(4), pages 476-491, October.
    24. Tseng, Fang-Mei & Lo, Hui-Yi, 2011. "Antecedents of consumers' intentions to upgrade their mobile phones," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 74-86, February.
    25. Kirui, Oliver K. & Okello, Julius J. & Nyikal, Rose A. & Njiraini, Georgina W., 2013. "Impact of Mobile Phone-Based Money Transfer Services in Agriculture: Evidence from Kenya," Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture, Humboldt-Universitaat zu Berlin, vol. 52(2), pages 1-22, May.
    26. John Kuada, 2015. "Entrepreneurship in Africa – a classificatory framework and a research agenda," African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 6(2), pages 148-163, June.
    27. Thierry PENARD & Nicolas POUSSING & Gabriel ZOMO YEBE & Philémon NSI ELLA, 2012. "Comparing the Determinants of Internet and Cell Phone Use in Africa: Evidence from Gabon," Communications & Strategies, IDATE, Com&Strat dept., vol. 1(86), pages 65-83, 2nd quart.
    28. Billger, Sherrilyn M. & Goel, Rajeev K., 2009. "Do existing corruption levels matter in controlling corruption?: Cross-country quantile regression estimates," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(2), pages 299-305, November.
    29. Simplice Asongu, 2014. "The impact of health worker migration on development dynamics: evidence of wealth effects from Africa," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 15(2), pages 187-201, March.
    30. Simplice Asongu, 2015. "The impact of mobile phone penetration on African inequality," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 42(8), pages 706-716, August.
    31. Perez, Felipe & Gonzalez, Connie Jones & Aaronson, Xavier, 2011. "Village banking development model: FINCA Costa Rica," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 64(3), pages 316-324, March.
    32. Amankwah-Amoah, Joseph, 2016. "Global business and emerging economies: Towards a new perspective on the effects of e-waste," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 20-26.
    33. Sajda Qureshi, 2013. "Networks of change, shifting power from institutions to people: how are innovations in the use of information and communication technology transforming development?," Information Technology for Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(2), pages 97-99, April.
    34. Badi H. Baltagi, 2008. "Forecasting with panel data," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(2), pages 153-173.
    35. Augustin Kwasi Fosu, 2013. "Growth of African Economies: Productivity, Policy Syndromes and the Importance of Institutions," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 22(4), pages 523-551, August.
    36. Koenker,Roger, 2005. "Quantile Regression," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521845731, October.
    37. John Ssozi & Simplice A. Asongu, 2016. "The Effects of Remittances on Output per Worker in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Production Function Approach," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 84(3), pages 400-421, September.
    38. Christian Lambert Nguena & Fulbert Tchana Tchana & Albert Zeufack, 2015. "HOUSING FINANCE and INCLUSIVE GROWTH: Benchmarking, Determinants and Effects," AAYE Policy Research Working Paper Series 15_027, Association of African Young Economists, revised Feb 2015.
    39. Okada, Keisuke & Samreth, Sovannroeun, 2012. "The effect of foreign aid on corruption: A quantile regression approach," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 115(2), pages 240-243.
    40. Hopestone Kayiska Chavula, 2013. "Telecommunications development and economic growth in Africa," Information Technology for Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(1), pages 5-23, January.
    41. Amankwah-Amoah, Joseph, 2015. "Solar energy in sub-Saharan Africa: The challenges and opportunities of technological leapfrogging," MPRA Paper 88627, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    42. Pádraig Carmody, 2013. "A knowledge economy or an information society in Africa? Thintegration and the mobile phone revolution," Information Technology for Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(1), pages 24-39, January.
    43. Sheikh Taher ABU & Masatsugu TSUJI, 2010. "The Determinants of the Global Mobile Telephone Deployment: An Empirical Analysis," Informatica Economica, Academy of Economic Studies - Bucharest, Romania, vol. 14(3), pages 21-33.
    44. Muto, Megumi, 2009. "The impacts of mobile phone coverage expansion and personal networks on migration: evidence from Uganda," 2009 Conference, August 16-22, 2009, Beijing, China 51898, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    45. Sajda Qureshi, 2013. "What is the role of mobile phones in bringing about growth?," Information Technology for Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(1), pages 1-4, January.
    46. Jenny C. Aker & Isaac M. Mbiti, 2010. "Mobile Phones and Economic Development in Africa," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 24(3), pages 207-232, Summer.
    47. David Roodman, 2009. "A Note on the Theme of Too Many Instruments," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 71(1), pages 135-158, February.
    48. Simplice A. Asongu & Oasis Kodila-Tedika, 2015. "Conditional determinants of FDI in fast emerging economies: an instrumental quantile regression approach," Research Africa Network Working Papers 15/003, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    49. Simplice Asongu, 2014. "Financial development dynamic thresholds of financial globalization: Evidence from Africa," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 41(2), pages 166-195, March.
    50. Gebreab, Frew Amare, 2002. "Getting connected : competition and diffusion in African mobile telecommunications markets," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2863, The World Bank.
    51. Muto, Megumi & Yamano, Takashi, 2009. "The Impact of Mobile Phone Coverage Expansion on Market Participation: Panel Data Evidence from Uganda," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 1887-1896, December.
    52. Dan Ofori, 2014. "An Exploratory Study of Project Management Competency in Ghana," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 197-210, December.
    53. Fu Lai Tony Yu & Diana S. Kwan, 2015. "African Entrepreneurs and International Coordination in Petty Businesses: The Case of Low-End Mobile Phones Sourcing in Hong Kong," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(1-2), pages 66-83, January.
    54. Nadra Hashim, 2014. "How Knowledge, Policy Planning, and Implementation Succeed or Fail: The Jatropha Projects in Tanzania," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 169-183, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Asongu, Simplice A. & Biekpe, Nicholas & Cassimon, Danny, 2021. "On the diffusion of mobile phone innovations for financial inclusion," Technology in Society, Elsevier, vol. 65(C).
    2. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2019. "How enhancing information and communication technology has affected inequality in Africa for sustainable development: An empirical investigation," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(4), pages 647-656, July.
    3. Vanessa S. Tchamyou & Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2019. "The Role of ICT in Modulating the Effect of Education and Lifelong Learning on Income Inequality and Economic Growth in Africa," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 31(3), pages 261-274, September.
    4. Asongu, Simplice & Uduji, Joseph & Okolo-Obasi, Elda, 2019. "Thresholds of External Flows for Inclusive Human Development in Sub-Saharan Africa," MPRA Paper 101521, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2020. "The role of governance in quality education in sub-Saharan Africa," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 20/077, African Governance and Development Institute..
    6. Asongu, Simplice A. & Uduji, Joseph I. & Okolo-Obasi, Elda N., 2019. "Homicide and social media: Global empirical evidence," Technology in Society, Elsevier, vol. 59(C).
    7. Simplice A. Asongu, 2021. "The Effects of Mobile Phone Technology, Knowledge Creation and Diffusion on Inclusive Human Development in Sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 12(3), pages 1367-1398, September.
    8. Asongu, Simplice A. & Biekpe, Nicholas & Cassimon, Danny, 2020. "Understanding the greater diffusion of mobile money innovations in Africa," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(8).
    9. Simplice A. Asongu & Joseph Amankwah‐Amoah & Rexon T. Nting & Godfred Adjapong Afrifa, 2021. "Information Technology and Gender Economic Inclusion in Sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of Global Information Technology Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(2), pages 120-133, April.
    10. Asongu, Simplice A. & Agyemang-Mintah, Peter & Nting, Rexon T., 2021. "Law, mobile money drivers and mobile money innovations in developing countries," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 168(C).
    11. Malaquias, Rodrigo Fernandes & Silva, Altieres Frances, 2020. "Understanding the use of mobile banking in rural areas of Brazil," Technology in Society, Elsevier, vol. 62(C).
    12. Oluwarotimi Ayokunnu Owolabi & Asa-Ruth Oboku Oku & Abidemi Alejo & Toun Ogunbiyi & Jeremiah Ifeanyi Ubah, 2021. "Access to Electricity, Information and Communications Technology (ICT), and Financial Development: Evidence From West Africa," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 11(2), pages 247-259.
    13. Asongu, Simplice & Rahman, Mushfiqur & Nnanna, Joseph & Haffar, Mohamed, 2020. "Enhancing Information Technology for Value Added Across Economic Sectors in Sub-Saharan Africa," MPRA Paper 107238, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Asongu, Simplice A. & Rahman, Mushfiqur & Nnanna, Joseph & Haffar, Mohamed, 2020. "Enhancing information technology for value added across economic sectors in Sub-Saharan Africa✰," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 161(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Simplice A. Asongu, 2018. "Conditional Determinants of Mobile Phones Penetration and Mobile Banking in Sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 9(1), pages 81-135, March.
    2. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2019. "Enhancing ICT for insurance in Africa," Review of Development Finance Journal, Chartered Institute of Development Finance, vol. 9(2), pages 16-27.
    3. Simplice Asongu & Nicholas Odhiambo, 2018. "Human development thresholds for inclusive mobile banking in developing countries," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 18/022, African Governance and Development Institute..
    4. Simplice A. Asongu & Ndemaze Asongu, 2019. "The Role of Mobile Phones in Governance-Driven Technology Exports in Sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 10(2), pages 849-867, June.
    5. Asongu, Simplice A. & Le Roux, Sara & Biekpe, Nicholas, 2018. "Enhancing ICT for environmental sustainability in sub-Saharan Africa," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 127(C), pages 209-216.
    6. Asongu, Simplice A. & Nwachukwu, Jacinta C., 2018. "Educational quality thresholds in the diffusion of knowledge with mobile phones for inclusive human development in sub-Saharan Africa," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 129(C), pages 164-172.
    7. Asongu, Simplice, 2017. "Mobile Phone Innovation and Technology-driven Exports in Sub-Saharan Africa," MPRA Paper 84040, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised May 2017.
    8. Asongu, Simplice A. & Nwachukwu, Jacinta C., 2016. "The role of governance in mobile phones for inclusive human development in Sub-Saharan Africa," Technovation, Elsevier, vol. 55, pages 1-13.
    9. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2019. "How enhancing information and communication technology has affected inequality in Africa for sustainable development: An empirical investigation," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(4), pages 647-656, July.
    10. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2018. "ICT, Financial Access and Gender Inclusion in the Formal Economic Sector: Evidence from Africa," The African Finance Journal, Africagrowth Institute, vol. 20(2), pages 45-65.
    11. Simplice A. Asongu & Vanessa S. Tchamyou & Paul N. Acha-Anyi, 2020. "Who Is Who in Knowledge Economy in Africa?," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 11(2), pages 425-457, June.
    12. Asongu, Simplice A. & Nwachukwu, Jacinta C. & Orim, Stella-Maris I., 2018. "Mobile phones, institutional quality and entrepreneurship in Sub-Saharan Africa," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 131(C), pages 183-203.
    13. Asongu, Simplice & le Roux, Sara & Nwachukwu, Jacinta & Pyke, Chris, 2018. "The Mobile Phone as an Argument for Good Governance in Sub-Saharan Africa," MPRA Paper 89364, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Simplice A. Asongu, 2017. "ICT, Openness and CO2 emissions in Africa," Research Africa Network Working Papers 17/055, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    15. Simplice Asongu & Nicholas Biekpe & Vanessa Tchamyou, 2019. "Remittances, ICT and doing business in Sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 46(1), pages 35-54, January.
    16. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2019. "The role of openness in the effect of ICT on governance," Information Technology for Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(3), pages 503-531, July.
    17. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas Biekpe, 2017. "Government quality determinants of ICT adoption in sub-Saharan Africa," Netnomics, Springer, vol. 18(2), pages 107-130, December.
    18. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2017. "Not all that glitters is gold: ICT and inclusive human development in Sub-Saharan Africa," International Journal of Happiness and Development, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 3(4), pages 303-322.
    19. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2018. "Recent finance advances in information technology for inclusive development: a systematic review," Netnomics, Springer, vol. 19(1), pages 65-93, October.
    20. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2020. "Remittances, the diffusion of information and industrialisation in Africa," Contemporary Social Science, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(1), pages 98-117, January.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Panel data; Mobile phones; Development; Africa;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • L96 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities - - - Telecommunications
    • O11 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
    • O33 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes
    • O55 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Africa

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:agd:wpaper:16/046. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/agdiycm.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Asongu Simplice (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/agdiycm.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.