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The Comparative African Economics of Inclusive Development and Military Expenditure in Fighting Terrorism

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  • Asongu, Simplice
  • Tchamyou, Vanessa
  • Asongu, Ndemaze
  • Tchamyou, Nina

Abstract

This study investigates the role of inclusive human development and military expenditure in fighting terrorism in 53 African countries for the period 1998-2012. The empirical evidence is based on contemporary, non-contemporary and instrumental variable Fixed Effects regressions. Inclusive development is not a sufficient condition for the fight against terrorism whereas military expenditure can be effectively employed to mitigate the phenomenon. Significant negative effects are established only when endogeneity is accounted for by means of non-contemporary and instrumental-variables approaches. Hence, the policy effectiveness of employed tools is contingent on whether they are engaged proactively (i.e. non-contemporarily) or not. From the findings, the propensity of military expenditure to fight transnational terrorism is higher in: (i) middle income countries vis-à-vis their low income counterparts; (ii) oil-rich countries compared to oil-poor countries and (iii) Christian-dominated countries vis-à-vis their Islam-oriented counterparts. Furthermore military expenditure is also more effective at combating domestic and transnational terrorism in: (i) North African countries vis-à-vis their sub-Saharan Africa counterparts; (ii) landlocked countries compared to countries that are open to the sea and (iii) politically-stable countries vis-à-vis their politically-unstable counterparts. Contributions to the comparative economics are discussed. Practical and theoretical contributions are also provided.

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  • Asongu, Simplice & Tchamyou, Vanessa & Asongu, Ndemaze & Tchamyou, Nina, 2017. "The Comparative African Economics of Inclusive Development and Military Expenditure in Fighting Terrorism," MPRA Paper 83069, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:83069
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    Cited by:

    1. Simplice Asongu & Jacinta Nwachukwu & Sara le Roux, 2019. "The role of inclusive development and military expenditure in modulating the effect of terrorism on governance," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 46(3), pages 681-709, August.
    2. Asongu, Simplice & Odhiambo, Nicholas, 2020. "Social Media and Inclusive Human Development in Africa," MPRA Paper 103149, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Simplice A. Asongu & Stella-Maris I. Orim & Rexon T. Nting, 2019. "Terrorism and social media: global evidence," CEREDEC Working Papers 19/026, Centre de Recherche pour le Développement Economique (CEREDEC).
    4. Asongu, Simplice, 2019. "Natural Resource Exports, Foreign Aid and Terrorism," International Journal of Development and Conflict, Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, vol. 9(1), pages 74-94.
    5. Simplice A. Asongu & Paul N. Acha-Anyi, 2019. "Global Tourism and Waves of Terror: Perspectives from Military Expenditure," Working Papers 19/062, European Xtramile Centre of African Studies (EXCAS).
    6. Simplice A. Asongu & Sara Le Roux & Pritam Singh, 2020. "Fighting terrorism in Africa: complementarity between inclusive development, military expenditure and political stability," Research Africa Network Working Papers 20/004, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    7. Asongu, Simplice A. & Odhiambo, Nicholas M., 2019. "Governance and social media in African countries: An empirical investigation," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(5), pages 411-425.
    8. Asongu, Simplice & Acha-Anyi, Paul, 2017. "The Murder Epidemic: A Global Comparative Study," MPRA Paper 85486, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Jan 2018.
    9. Simplice Asongu & Uchenna R. Efobi & Ibukun Beecroft, 2017. "Aid in Modulating the Impact of Terrorism on FDI: No Positive Thresholds, No Policy," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 17/061, African Governance and Development Institute..
    10. Simplice A. Asongu & Oasis Kodila-Tedika, 2020. "Intelligence and Slave Exports from Africa," Journal of Interdisciplinary Economics, , vol. 32(2), pages 145-159, July.
    11. Simplice A. Asongu & Joseph I. Uduji & Elda N. Okolo-Obasi, 2019. "Homicide and Social Media: Global Empirical Evidence," Research Africa Network Working Papers 19/049, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    12. Simplice Asongu & Ivo J. Leke, 2019. "Can Foreign Aid Dampen the Threat of Terrorism to International Trade? Evidence from 78 Developing Countries," Arthaniti: Journal of Economic Theory and Practice, , vol. 18(1), pages 32-55, June.
    13. Simplice A. Asongu & Joseph Nnanna, 2019. "Dynamic Determinants of Access to Weapons: Global Evidence," Foreign Trade Review, , vol. 54(4), pages 334-354, November.
    14. Asongu, Simplice A. & Tchamyou, Vanessa S. & Minkoua N., Jules R. & Asongu, Ndemaze & Tchamyou, Nina P., 2018. "Fighting terrorism in Africa: Benchmarking policy harmonization," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 492(C), pages 1931-1957.
    15. Simplice A. Asongu & Vanessa S. Tchamyou & Ndemaze Asongu & Nina Tchamyou, 2018. "The Comparative African Economics of Governance in Fighting Terrorism," Research Africa Network Working Papers 18/055, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    16. Asongu, Simplice A. & Biekpe, Nicholas, 2018. "Globalization and terror in Africa," International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 156(C), pages 86-97.
    17. Simplice A. Asongu & Rexon T. Nting & Evans S. Osabuohien, 2019. "One Bad Turn Deserves Another: How Terrorism Sustains the Addiction to Capital Flight in Africa," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 19(3), pages 501-535, September.
    18. Simplice A. Asongu & Joseph Nnanna, 2019. "Determinants of Access to Weapons: Global Evidence," CEREDEC Working Papers 19/008, Centre de Recherche pour le Développement Economique (CEREDEC).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Terrorism; Inclusive development; Military expenditure; Africa;

    JEL classification:

    • C52 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Model Evaluation, Validation, and Selection
    • D72 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - Political Processes: Rent-seeking, Lobbying, Elections, Legislatures, and Voting Behavior
    • F42 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - International Policy Coordination and Transmission
    • O16 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Financial Markets; Saving and Capital Investment; Corporate Finance and Governance
    • O38 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Government Policy

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