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Mitigating capital flight through military expenditure: Insight from 37 African countries

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  • Asongu, Simplice A.
  • Amankwah-Amoah, Joseph

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to assess the thresholds at which military expenditure modulates the effect of terrorism on capital flight. We employed a panel data of 37 African countries from 1996 to 2010. The empirical evidence was based on: (i) baseline contemporary and non-contemporary OLS, (ii) contemporary and non-contemporary fixed effects regressions to account for the unobserved heterogeneity, (iii) the Generalised Method of Moments to account for the capital flight trap and (iv) Quantile Regressions (QR) to account for initial levels of capital flight. The study found that the thresholds are apparent exclusively in Quantile Regressions with military expenditure thresholds ranging from: 4.224 to 5.612 for domestic terrorism, 5.734–7.363 for unclear terrorism and 4.710–6.617 for total terrorism. No thresholds are apparent in transnational terrorism related regressions. Depending on the terrorist target, the findings broadly show that a critical mass of between 4.224 and 7.363 of military expenditure as a percentage of GDP is needed to reverse the negative effect of terrorism on capital flight. In spite of the growing consensus of the need to utilise military expenditure to help combat terrorism, our understanding of the threshold at which military expenditure completely dampens the negative effect of terrorism on capital flight remains largely underexplored. We capitalize on panel data of 37 African countries to address this lacuna in our understanding of this important issue.

Suggested Citation

  • Asongu, Simplice A. & Amankwah-Amoah, Joseph, 2018. "Mitigating capital flight through military expenditure: Insight from 37 African countries," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 38-53.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:riibaf:v:45:y:2018:i:c:p:38-53
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ribaf.2017.07.130
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    5. Asongu, Simplice & Acha-Anyi, Paul, 2019. "Global Tourism and Waves of Terror: Perspectives from Military Expenditure," MPRA Paper 101793, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Simplice A. Asongu, 2019. "The persistence of global terrorism," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 19/053, African Governance and Development Institute..
    7. Simplice A. Asongu & Paul N. Acha-Anyi, 2020. "A survey on the Washington Consensus and the Beijing Model: reconciling development perspectives," International Review of Economics, Springer;Happiness Economics and Interpersonal Relations (HEIRS), vol. 67(2), pages 111-129, June.
    8. Simplice A. Asongu & Stella-Maris I. Orim & Rexon T. Nting, 2019. "Terrorism and Social Media: Global Evidence," Journal of Global Information Technology Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(3), pages 208-228, July.
    9. Asongu, Simplice, 2019. "Natural Resource Exports, Foreign Aid and Terrorism," International Journal of Development and Conflict, Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, vol. 9(1), pages 74-94.
    10. Asongu, Simplice A & Odhiambo, Nicholas M, 2023. "Military Expenditure, Policy Syndromes and Tourism in the World," Working Papers 30041, University of South Africa, Department of Economics.
    11. Simplice A. Asongu & Rexon T. Nting & Evans S. Osabuohien, 2019. "One Bad Turn Deserves Another: How Terrorism Sustains the Addiction to Capital Flight in Africa," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 19(3), pages 501-535, September.
    12. Emmanuel Uche & Lionel Effiom, 2021. "Fighting capital flight in Nigeria: have we considered global uncertainties and exchange rate volatilities? Fresh insights via quantile ARDL model," SN Business & Economics, Springer, vol. 1(6), pages 1-22, June.
    13. Simplice A. Asongu & Joseph I. Uduji & Elda N. Okolo-Obasi, 2020. "Fighting African capital flight: trajectories, dynamics, and tendencies," Financial Innovation, Springer;Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, vol. 6(1), pages 1-21, December.
    14. Mohamed Noureldin Sayed & Ghada H. Ashour & Nesrin A. Abbas, 2021. "The Impact of the Volatility in Oil Prices on Saudi Arabia s and Algeria s Military Expenditure: A Comparative Study," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 11(6), pages 180-190.
    15. Pacific K. T. Yapatake & Gabriella M-A. M Ngaba, 2019. "Capital Flight and Extent of Corruption control in the Least Corrupt African Countries: An Empirical assessment," CEREDEC Working Papers 19/002, Centre de Recherche pour le Développement Economique (CEREDEC).
    16. Shahzad, Umer & Sarwar, Suleman & Farooq, Muhammad Umar & Qin, Fengming, 2020. "USAID, official development assistance and counter terrorism efforts: Pre and post 9/11 analysis for South Asia," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 69(C).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Capital flight; Military expenditure; Terrorism; Africa;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C50 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - General
    • D74 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - Conflict; Conflict Resolution; Alliances; Revolutions
    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
    • N40 - Economic History - - Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation - - - General, International, or Comparative
    • O55 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Africa

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