IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/aby/wpaper/19-009.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Remittances, Finance and Industrialisation in Africa

Author

Listed:
  • Uchenna Efobi

    (Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria)

  • Simplice A. Asongu

    (Yaoundé, Cameroon)

  • Chinelo Okafor

    (Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria)

  • Vanessa Tchamyou

    (Antwerp, Belgium)

  • Belmondo Tanankem

    (MINEPAT, Cameroon)

Abstract

The paper assesses how remittances directly and indirectly affect industrialisation using a panel of 49 African countries for the period 1980-2014. The indirect impact is assessed through financial development channels. The empirical evidence is based on three interactive and non-interactive simultaneity-robust estimation techniques, namely: (i) Instrumental Fixed Effects (FE) to control for the unobserved heterogeneity; (ii) Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) to control for persistence in industrialisation and (iii) Instrumental Quantile Regressions (QR) to account for initial levels of industrialisation. The non-interactive specification elucidates direct effects of remittances on industrialisation whereas interactive specifications explain indirect impacts. The findings broadly show that for certain initial levels of industrialisation, remittances can drive industrialisation through the financial development mechanism. Policy implications are discussed.

Suggested Citation

  • Uchenna Efobi & Simplice A. Asongu & Chinelo Okafor & Vanessa Tchamyou & Belmondo Tanankem, 2019. "Remittances, Finance and Industrialisation in Africa," CEREDEC Working Papers 19/009, Centre de Recherche pour le Développement Economique (CEREDEC).
  • Handle: RePEc:aby:wpaper:19/009
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://publications.ceredec.org/RePEc/aby/aby-wpaper/Remittances-Finance-and-Industrialisation-in-Africa.pdf
    File Function: Revised version, 2019
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Simplice Asongu, 2015. "Liberalisation and Financial Sector Competition: A Critical Contribution to the Empirics with an African Assessment," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 83(3), pages 425-451, September.
    2. John Ssozi & Simplice A. Asongu, 2016. "The Comparative Economics of Catch-up in Output per Worker, Total Factor Productivity and Technological Gain in Sub-Saharan Africa," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 28(2), pages 215-228, June.
    3. Bettin, Giulia & Lucchetti, Riccardo & Zazzaro, Alberto, 2012. "Endogeneity and sample selection in a model for remittances," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(2), pages 370-384.
    4. John Ssozi & Simplice A. Asongu, 2016. "The Effects of Remittances on Output per Worker in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Production Function Approach," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 84(3), pages 400-421, September.
    5. Vanessa S. Tchamyou, 2019. "The Role of Information Sharing in Modulating the Effect of Financial Access on Inequality," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(3), pages 317-338, July.
    6. Devesh KAPUR, 2004. "Remittances: The New Development Mantra?," G-24 Discussion Papers 29, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    7. Asongu, Simplice A. & Nwachukwu, Jacinta C., 2016. "The Mobile Phone in the Diffusion of Knowledge for Institutional Quality in Sub-Saharan Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 133-147.
    8. Vanessa Simen Tchamyou, 2020. "Education, lifelong learning, inequality and financial access: evidence from African countries," Contemporary Social Science, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(1), pages 7-25, January.
    9. Vanessa S. Tchamyou & Simplice A. Asongu, 2017. "Information Sharing and Financial Sector Development in Africa," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(1), pages 24-49, January.
    10. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2016. "Revolution empirics: predicting the Arab Spring," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 51(2), pages 439-482, September.
    11. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Lean, Hooi Hooi, 2012. "Does financial development increase energy consumption? The role of industrialization and urbanization in Tunisia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 473-479.
    12. Stephen Bond & Anke Hoeffler & Jonathan Temple, 2001. "GMM Estimation of Empirical Growth Models," Economics Papers 2001-W21, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
    13. Emmanuel K. K. Lartey & Federico S. Mandelman & Pablo A. Acosta, 2012. "Remittances, Exchange Rate Regimes and the Dutch Disease: A Panel Data Analysis," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(2), pages 377-395, May.
    14. Westerlund, Joakim & Urbain, Jean-Pierre, 2013. "On the implementation and use of factor-augmented regressions in panel data," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 3-11.
    15. Love, Inessa & Zicchino, Lea, 2006. "Financial development and dynamic investment behavior: Evidence from panel VAR," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 190-210, May.
    16. Pablo Selaya & Rainer Thiele, 2010. "Aid and Sectoral Growth: Evidence from Panel Data," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(10), pages 1749-1766.
    17. Colin McKenzie & Michael McAleer, 1997. "On Efficient Estimation and Correct Inference in Models with Generated Regressors: a General Approach," The Japanese Economic Review, Japanese Economic Association, vol. 48(4), pages 368-389, December.
    18. Mr. Magnus Saxegaard, 2006. "Excess Liquidity and Effectiveness of Monetary Policy: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa," IMF Working Papers 2006/115, International Monetary Fund.
    19. Simplice Asongu & Rangan Gupta, 2016. "Trust and quality of growth: a note," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 36(3), pages 1854-1867.
    20. Daniel Domeher & Godwin Musah & Najib Hassan, 2017. "Inter-sectoral Differences in the SME Financing Gap: Evidence from Selected Sectors in Ghana," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(2), pages 194-220, April.
    21. Boateng, Agyenim & Asongu, Simplice & Akamavi, Raphael & Tchamyou, Vanessa, 2018. "Information asymmetry and market power in the African banking industry," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 69-83.
    22. Tibebe A. Assefa & André Varella Mollick, 2017. "Financial Development and Economic Growth in Africa," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(3), pages 320-339, July.
    23. Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
    24. Acosta, Pablo A. & Lartey, Emmanuel K.K. & Mandelman, Federico S., 2009. "Remittances and the Dutch disease," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(1), pages 102-116, September.
    25. Sheilla Nyasha & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2017. "Banks, Stock Market Development and Economic Growth in Kenya: An Empirical Investigation," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(1), pages 1-23, January.
    26. Giuliano, Paola & Ruiz-Arranz, Marta, 2009. "Remittances, financial development, and growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(1), pages 144-152, September.
    27. Koenker, Roger W & Bassett, Gilbert, Jr, 1978. "Regression Quantiles," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 33-50, January.
    28. Augustin Kwasi Fosu, 2015. "Growth, Inequality and Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa: Recent Progress in a Global Context," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(1), pages 44-59, March.
    29. David Roodman, 2009. "How to do xtabond2: An introduction to difference and system GMM in Stata," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 9(1), pages 86-136, March.
    30. Simplice A. Asongu, 2013. "Fighting corruption in Africa: do existing corruption‐control levels matter?," International Journal of Development Issues, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, vol. 12(1), pages 36-52, April.
    31. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2016. "Foreign aid and governance in Africa," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(1), pages 69-88, January.
    32. Gries, Thomas & Kraft, Manfred & Meierrieks, Daniel, 2009. "Linkages Between Financial Deepening, Trade Openness, and Economic Development: Causality Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 1849-1860, December.
    33. Simplice A. Asongu, 2014. "Correcting Inflation with Financial Dynamic Fundamentals: Which Adjustments Matter in Africa?," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(1), pages 64-73, April.
    34. Badi H. Baltagi, 2008. "Forecasting with panel data," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(2), pages 153-173.
    35. Catalina Amuedo-Dorantes, 2014. "The good and the bad in remittance flows," IZA World of Labor, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA), pages 1-97, November.
    36. Simplice A Asongu & Lieven De Moor, 2017. "Financial Globalisation Dynamic Thresholds for Financial Development: Evidence from Africa," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 29(1), pages 192-212, January.
    37. Bradley, Michael & Jarrell, Gregg A & Kim, E Han, 1984. "On the Existence of an Optimal Capital Structure: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(3), pages 857-878, July.
    38. Abebe Shimeles & Mthuli Ncube, 2015. "The Making of the Middle-Class in Africa: Evidence from DHS Data," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 51(2), pages 178-193, February.
    39. Mr. Arvind Subramanian & Raghuram Rajan, 2005. "What Undermines Aid’s Impact on Growth?," IMF Working Papers 2005/126, International Monetary Fund.
    40. Katsiaryna Svirydzenka, 2016. "Introducing a New Broad-based Index of Financial Development," IMF Working Papers 2016/005, International Monetary Fund.
    41. Westerlund, Joakim & Urbain, Jean-Pierre, 2013. "On the estimation and inference in factor-augmented panel regressions with correlated loadings," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 119(3), pages 247-250.
    42. Naudé, Wim & Szirmai, Adam & Lavopa, Alejandro, 2013. "Industrialization Lessons from BRICS: A Comparative Analysis," IZA Discussion Papers 7543, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    43. Beck, Thorsten & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Levine, Ross, 2003. "Law and finance: why does legal origin matter?," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 653-675, December.
    44. Simplice Asongu & Nicholas Biekpe & Vanessa Tchamyou, 2019. "Remittances, ICT and doing business in Sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, vol. 46(1), pages 35-54, January.
    45. Narayan, Paresh Kumar & Mishra, Sagarika & Narayan, Seema, 2011. "Do market capitalization and stocks traded converge? New global evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 2771-2781, October.
    46. Tchamyou, Vanessa S. & Asongu, Simplice A., 2017. "Conditional market timing in the mutual fund industry," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 1355-1366.
    47. David Roodman, 2009. "A Note on the Theme of Too Many Instruments," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 71(1), pages 135-158, February.
    48. Simplice A. Asongu, 2013. "African Stock Market Performance Dynamics: A Multidimensional Convergence Assessment," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(3), pages 186-201, December.
    49. Dean Yang, 2008. "International Migration, Remittances and Household Investment: Evidence from Philippine Migrants' Exchange Rate Shocks," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(528), pages 591-630, April.
    50. Peterson K. Ozili, 2017. "Bank Profitability and Capital Regulation: Evidence from Listed and non-Listed Banks in Africa," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(2), pages 143-168, April.
    51. Sung Jin Kang & Hongshik Lee, 2011. "Foreign Direct Investment and De‐industrialisation," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(2), pages 313-329, February.
    52. Billger, Sherrilyn M. & Goel, Rajeev K., 2009. "Do existing corruption levels matter in controlling corruption?: Cross-country quantile regression estimates," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(2), pages 299-305, November.
    53. Elijah Udoh & Uchechi R. Ogbuagu, 2012. "Financial Sector Development and Industrial Production in Nigeria (1970-2009): An ARDL Cointegration Approach," Journal of Applied Finance & Banking, SCIENPRESS Ltd, vol. 2(4), pages 1-4.
    54. Stephen Bond & Anke Hoeffler, 2001. "GMM Estimation of Empirical Growth Models," Economics Series Working Papers 2001-W21, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    55. Okada, Keisuke & Samreth, Sovannroeun, 2012. "The effect of foreign aid on corruption: A quantile regression approach," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 115(2), pages 240-243.
    56. Agarwal, Reena & Horowitz, Andrew W., 2002. "Are International Remittances Altruism or Insurance? Evidence from Guyana Using Multiple-Migrant Households," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(11), pages 2033-2044, November.
    57. John Page, 2012. "Can Africa Industrialise?-super- †," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 21(suppl_2), pages -124, January.
    58. Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
    59. Franklin Amuakwa-Mensah & George Marbuah & Dinah Ani-Asamoah Marbuah, 2017. "Re-examining the Determinants of Non-Performing Loans in Ghana’s Banking Industry: Role of the 2007–2009 Financial Crisis," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(3), pages 357-379, July.
    60. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
    61. Gui-Diby, Steve Loris & Renard, Mary-Françoise, 2015. "Foreign Direct Investment Inflows and the Industrialization of African Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 43-57.
    62. Simplice Asongu, 2013. "How Would Population Growth Affect Investment in the Future? Asymmetric Panel Causality Evidence for Africa," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 25(1), pages 14-29.
    63. Asongu, Simplice A. & Biekpe, Nicholas, 2018. "ICT, information asymmetry and market power in African banking industry," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 518-531.
    64. Levine, Ross, 2005. "Finance and Growth: Theory and Evidence," Handbook of Economic Growth, in: Philippe Aghion & Steven Durlauf (ed.), Handbook of Economic Growth, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 12, pages 865-934, Elsevier.
    65. Scott, James H, Jr, 1977. "Bankruptcy, Secured Debt, and Optimal Capital Structure," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(1), pages 1-19, March.
    66. Asongu Simplice, 2011. "Government Quality Determinants of Stock Market Performance in African Countries," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 11/019, African Governance and Development Institute..
    67. Aggarwal, Reena & Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli & Pería, Maria Soledad Martínez, 2011. "Do remittances promote financial development?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(2), pages 255-264, November.
    68. Rosa Forte & Rui Moura, 2013. "The Effects Of Foreign Direct Investment On The Host Country'S Economic Growth: Theory And Empirical Evidence," The Singapore Economic Review (SER), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 58(03), pages 1-28.
    69. Oxley, Les & McAleer, Michael, 1993. "Econometric Issues in Macroeconomic Models with Generated Regressors," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 7(1), pages 1-40.
    70. Mauro Costantini & Claudio Lupi, 2005. "Stochastic convergence among European economies," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 3(38), pages 1-17.
    71. repec:iza:izawol:journl:y:2014:p:97 is not listed on IDEAS
    72. Pagan, Adrian, 1984. "Econometric Issues in the Analysis of Regressions with Generated Regressors," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 25(1), pages 221-247, February.
    73. Michael T. Gapen & Mr. Ralph Chami & Mr. Peter J Montiel & Mr. Adolfo Barajas & Connel Fullenkamp, 2009. "Do Workers’ Remittances Promote Economic Growth?," IMF Working Papers 2009/153, International Monetary Fund.
    74. Jushan Bai & Serena Ng, 2006. "Confidence Intervals for Diffusion Index Forecasts and Inference for Factor-Augmented Regressions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 74(4), pages 1133-1150, July.
    75. James Dzansi, 2013. "Do remittance inflows promote manufacturing growth?," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 51(1), pages 89-111, August.
    76. Roger Koenker & Kevin F. Hallock, 2001. "Quantile Regression," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(4), pages 143-156, Fall.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2020. "Remittances, the diffusion of information and industrialisation in Africa," Contemporary Social Science, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(1), pages 98-117, January.
    2. Efobi, Uchenna & Asongu, Simplice & Okafor, Chinelo & Tchamyou, Vanessa & Tanankem, Belmondo, 2016. "Diaspora Remittance Inflow, Financial Development and the Industrialisation of Africa," MPRA Paper 76121, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2019. "Governance, capital flight and industrialisation in Africa," Journal of Economic Structures, Springer;Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS), vol. 8(1), pages 1-22, December.
    4. Simplice Asongu & Nicholas Biekpe & Vanessa Tchamyou, 2019. "Remittances, ICT and doing business in Sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, vol. 46(1), pages 35-54, January.
    5. Simplice A. Asongu & Sara le Roux & Jacinta Nwachukwu & Chris Pyke, 2018. "The Mobile Phone as an Argument for Good Governance in sub-Saharan Africa," Working Papers 2 4004, Office Of The Chief Economist, Development Bank of Nigeria.
    6. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2022. "Remittances and value added across economic sub-sectors in Sub-Saharan Africa," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 56(1), pages 23-41, February.
    7. Asongu, Simplice A., 2017. "The effect of reducing information asymmetry on loan price and quantity in the African banking industry," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 185-197.
    8. Asongu, Simplice A. & Nwachukwu, Jacinta C., 2016. "The Mobile Phone in the Diffusion of Knowledge for Institutional Quality in Sub-Saharan Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 133-147.
    9. Simplice A. Asongu & Sara Le Roux & Vanessa S. Tchamyou, 2019. "Essential information sharing thresholds for reducing market power in financial access: a study of the African banking industry," Journal of Banking Regulation, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 20(1), pages 34-50, March.
    10. Simplice A. Asongu & Joseph I. Uduji & Elda N. Okolo-Obasi, 2020. "Drivers and persistence of death in conflicts: global evidence," Working Papers 20/066, European Xtramile Centre of African Studies (EXCAS).
    11. Asongu, Simplice & Nnanna, Joseph, 2020. "Governance and the Capital Flight Trap in Africa," MPRA Paper 103226, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Simplice A. Asongu & Joseph Nnanna & Rexon T. Nting, 2022. "A bad turn deserves another: linkages between terrorism, capital flight and industrialisation," International Journal of Public Administration, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(10), pages 760-772, July.
    13. Simplice Asongu & Christelle Meniago, 2018. "Technology and persistence in global software piracy," Netnomics, Springer, vol. 19(1), pages 43-63, October.
    14. Asongu, Simplice A. & Amankwah-Amoah, Joseph, 2018. "Mitigating capital flight through military expenditure: Insight from 37 African countries," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 38-53.
    15. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2019. "The role of openness in the effect of ICT on governance," Information Technology for Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(3), pages 503-531, July.
    16. Asongu, Simplice A. & Odhiambo, Nicholas M., 2020. "Foreign direct investment, information technology and economic growth dynamics in Sub-Saharan Africa," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(1).
    17. Simplice Asongu & Rexon Nting, 2021. "The role of finance in inclusive human development in Africa revisited," Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, vol. 38(2), pages 345-370, February.
    18. Asongu, Simplice & Odhiambo, Nicholas, 2019. "Foreign Aid Complementarities and Inclusive Human Development in Africa," MPRA Paper 101086, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2017. "Fighting Capital Flight in Africa: Evidence from Bundling and Unbundling Governance," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 17(3), pages 305-323, September.
    20. Simplice A. Asongu & Joseph Nnanna, 2019. "Foreign aid, instability and governance in Africa," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 19/022, African Governance and Development Institute..

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Africa; Diaspora; Financial development; Industrialisation; Remittances;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F24 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Remittances
    • F43 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Economic Growth of Open Economies
    • G20 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - General
    • O55 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Africa

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:aby:wpaper:19/009. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Anutechia Asongu Simplice (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.ceredec.org/ .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.