IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/abh/wpaper/16-022.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Terrorism and Capital Flight from Africa

Author

Listed:
  • Uchenna Efobi

    () (CEPDeR, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria)

  • Simplice A. Asongu

    () (Yaoundé, Cameroon)

Abstract

We assess the effects of terrorism on capital flight in a panel of 29 African countries for which data is available for the period 1987-2008. The terrorism dynamics entail domestic, transnational, unclear and total terrorisms. The empirical evidence is based on Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) with forward orthogonal deviations and Quantile regressions (QR). The following findings are established. First, for GMM, domestic, transnational, unclear and total terrorisms consistently increase capital flight. Second, for QR, with the exception of transnational terrorism for which a positive effect on capital flight is apparent in the 0.90th quintile, terrorism dynamics affect capital flight in low quintiles of the capital flight distribution. In other words, terrorism increases capital flight for the most part when initial levels of capital flight are low. Policy implications are discussed.

Suggested Citation

  • Uchenna Efobi & Simplice A. Asongu, 2016. "Terrorism and Capital Flight from Africa," Research Africa Network Working Papers 16/022, Research Africa Network (RAN).
  • Handle: RePEc:abh:wpaper:16/022
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://publications.resanet.org/RePEc/abh/abh-wpaper/Terrorism-and-Capital-Flight-from-Africa.pdf
    File Function: Revised version, 2016
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Subhayu Bandyopadhyay & Javed Younas, 2014. "Terrorism: A Threat to Foreign Direct Investment," The Regional Economist, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, October.
    2. J. K. Boyce & L. Ndikumana, 2001. "Is Africa a Net Creditor? New Estimates of Capital Flight from Severely Indebted Sub-Saharan African Countries, 1970-96," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(2), pages 27-56.
    3. Simplice A. Asongu & Uchenna R. Efobi & Ibukun Beecroft, 2015. "FDI, Aid, Terrorism: Conditional Threshold Evidence from Developing Countries," Research Africa Network Working Papers 15/019, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    4. Elizabeth Asiedu, 2006. "Foreign Direct Investment in Africa: The Role of Natural Resources, Market Size, Government Policy, Institutions and Political Instability," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(1), pages 63-77, January.
    5. Claude Berrebi & Esteban F. Klor, 2010. "The Impact of Terrorism on the Defence Industry," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 77(307), pages 518-543, July.
    6. Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
    7. Montfort Mlachila & René Tapsoba & Sampawende J. A. Tapsoba, 2017. "A Quality of Growth Index for Developing Countries: A Proposal," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 134(2), pages 675-710, November.
    8. Leonce Ndikumana & James Boyce, 2011. "Capital flight from sub-Saharan Africa: linkages with external borrowing and policy options," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(2), pages 149-170.
    9. David Roodman, 2009. "How to do xtabond2: An introduction to difference and system GMM in Stata," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 9(1), pages 86-136, March.
    10. Simplice A. Asongu, 2013. "Fighting corruption in Africa: do existing corruption-control levels matter?," International Journal of Development Issues, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 12(1), pages 36-52, April.
    11. Simplice A. Asongu, 2014. "Fighting African Capital Flight: Empirics on Benchmarking Policy Harmonization," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 11(1), pages 93-122, June.
    12. Uchenna R. Efobi & Simplice A. Asongu & Ibukun Beecroft, 2015. "Foreign Direct Investment, Aid and Terrorism: Empirical Insight Conditioned on Corruption Control," Research Africa Network Working Papers 15/007, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    13. Ndikumana, Leonce & Boyce, James K., 2003. "Public Debts and Private Assets: Explaining Capital Flight from Sub-Saharan African Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 107-130, January.
    14. Bellows, John & Miguel, Edward, 2009. "War and local collective action in Sierra Leone," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(11-12), pages 1144-1157, December.
    15. John Weeks, 2012. "Macroeconomic Impact of Capital Flows in Sub-Saharan Countries, 1980-2008," Working Papers wp290, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
    16. Billger, Sherrilyn M. & Goel, Rajeev K., 2009. "Do existing corruption levels matter in controlling corruption?: Cross-country quantile regression estimates," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(2), pages 299-305, November.
    17. Khusrav Gaibulloev & Todd Sandier, 2011. "The Adverse Effect of Transnational and Domestic Terrorism on Growth in Africa," Journal of Peace Research, Peace Research Institute Oslo, vol. 48(3), pages 355-371, May.
    18. Asiedu, Elizabeth & Lien, Donald, 2011. "Democracy, foreign direct investment and natural resources," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(1), pages 99-111, May.
    19. Simplice Asongu, 2014. "The impact of health worker migration on development dynamics: evidence of wealth effects from Africa," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 15(2), pages 187-201, March.
    20. David Kelsey & Sara Le Roux, 2017. "Dragon Slaying with Ambiguity: Theory and Experiments," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 19(1), pages 178-197, February.
    21. Leonce Ndikumana & James Boyce, 1998. "Congo's Odious Debt: External Borrowing and Capital Flight in Zaire," Development and Change, International Institute of Social Studies, vol. 29(2), pages 195-217, April.
    22. David Fielding, 2004. "How Does Violent Conflict Affect Investment Location Decisions? Evidence from Israel during the Intifada," Journal of Peace Research, Peace Research Institute Oslo, vol. 41(4), pages 465-484, July.
    23. John C. Anyanwu, 2012. "Why Does Foreign Direct Investment Go Where It Goes?: New Evidence From African Countries," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 13(2), pages 425-462, November.
    24. Cameron Napps & Walter Enders, 2015. "A regional investigation of the interrelationships between domestic and transnational terrorism: a time series analysis," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(2), pages 133-151, April.
    25. Badi H. Baltagi, 2008. "Forecasting with panel data," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(2), pages 153-173.
    26. Davies, Victor A. B., 2007. "Capital flight and war," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4210, The World Bank.
    27. Sharma, Kishor, 2006. "The political economy of civil war in Nepal," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1237-1253, July.
    28. Claude Berrebi & Jordan Ostwald, 2013. "Symposium - Exploiting the Chaos: Terrorist Target Choice Following Natural Disasters," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 79(4), pages 793-811, April.
    29. Koenker,Roger, 2005. "Quantile Regression," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521845731, December.
    30. Okada, Keisuke & Samreth, Sovannroeun, 2012. "The effect of foreign aid on corruption: A quantile regression approach," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 115(2), pages 240-243.
    31. Efobi, Uchenna & Beecroft, Ibukun & Asongu, Simplice A, 2014. "Foreign Aid and Corruption: Clarifying Murky Empirical Conclusions," MPRA Paper 63795, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    32. Paul Collier & Anke Hoeffler & Catherine Pattillo, 2004. "Africa's Exodus: Capital Flight and the Brain Drain as Portfolio Decisions," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 13(02), pages 15-54, December.
    33. Mete Feridun & Muhammad Shahbaz, 2010. "Fighting Terrorism: Are Military Measures Effective? Empirical Evidence From Turkey," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(2), pages 193-205.
    34. Seung-Whan Choi & Idean Salehyan, 2013. "No Good Deed Goes Unpunished: Refugees, Humanitarian Aid, and Terrorism," Conflict Management and Peace Science, Peace Science Society (International), vol. 30(1), pages 53-75, February.
    35. David Roodman, 2009. "A Note on the Theme of Too Many Instruments," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 71(1), pages 135-158, February.
    36. Simplice Asongu, 2014. "Financial development dynamic thresholds of financial globalization: Evidence from Africa," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 41(2), pages 166-195, March.
    37. Bandyopadhyay, Subhayu & Lahiri, Sajal & Younas, Javed, 2015. "Financing growth through foreign aid and private foreign loans: Nonlinearities and complementarities," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 75-96.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Efobi, Uchenna & Asongu, Simplice, 2015. "How Terrorism Explains Capital Flight from Africa," MPRA Paper 68662, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Asongu, Simplice A. & Amankwah-Amoah, Joseph, 2018. "Mitigating capital flight through military expenditure: Insight from 37 African countries," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 38-53.
    3. Simplice Asongu & Joseph Amankwah-Amoah, 2016. "Military expenditure, terrorism and capital flight: Insights from Africa," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 16/018, African Governance and Development Institute..
    4. Simplice A. Asongu & Rexon T. Nting & Evans S. Osabuohien, 2019. "One Bad Turn Deserves Another: How Terrorism Sustains the Addiction to Capital Flight in Africa," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 19(3), pages 501-535, September.
    5. Simplice A. Asongu & Joseph Nnanna, 2020. "Governance and the capital flight trap in Africa," Transnational Corporations Review, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(3), pages 276-292, July.
    6. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2017. "Fighting Capital Flight in Africa: Evidence from Bundling and Unbundling Governance," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 17(3), pages 305-323, September.
    7. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2017. "Fuel Exports, Aid and Terrorism," Research Africa Network Working Papers 17/016, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    8. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2016. "Conditional linkages between iron ore exports, foreign aid and terrorism," Mineral Economics, Springer;Raw Materials Group (RMG);Luleå University of Technology, vol. 29(2), pages 57-70, December.
    9. Simplice Asongu & Enowbi Batuo & Vanessa Tchamyou, 2015. "Bundling Governance: Finance versus Institutions in Private Investment Promotion," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 15/051, African Governance and Development Institute..
    10. Asongu, Simplice & Efobi, Uchenna & Beecroft, Ibukun, 2015. "FDI, Aid, Terrorism: Conditional Threshold Evidence from Developing Countries," MPRA Paper 67856, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Uchenna Efobi & Simplice Asongu & Ibukun Beecroft, 2018. "Aid, Terrorism, and Foreign Direct Investment: Empirical Insight Conditioned on Corruption Control," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(4), pages 610-630, October.
    12. Simplice A. Asongu, 2017. "Knowledge Economy Gaps, Policy Syndromes, and Catch-Up Strategies: Fresh South Korean Lessons to Africa," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 8(1), pages 211-253, March.
    13. Simplice Asongu & John Ssozi, 2017. "When is Foreign Aid Effective in Fighting Terrorism? Threshold Evidence," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(3), pages 370-389, July.
    14. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu & Aqsa Aziz, 2018. "Determinants of Mobile Phone Penetration: Panel Threshold Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of Global Information Technology Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(2), pages 81-110, April.
    15. Simplice A. ASONGU & Jacinta NWACHUKWU & Nicholas BIEKPE, 2019. "Foreign Aid, Terrorism And Growth: Conditional Evidence From Quantile Regression," Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 90(3), pages 457-486, September.
    16. Asongu, Simplice A., 2017. "The effect of reducing information asymmetry on loan price and quantity in the African banking industry," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 185-197.
    17. Uchenna R. Efobi & Simplice A. Asongu & Ibukun Beecroft, 2015. "Foreign Direct Investment, Aid and Terrorism: Empirical Insight Conditioned on Corruption Control," Research Africa Network Working Papers 15/007, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    18. Boateng, Agyenim & Asongu, Simplice & Akamavi, Raphael & Tchamyou, Vanessa, 2018. "Information asymmetry and market power in the African banking industry," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 69-83.
    19. Simplice Asongu & Oasis Kodila-Tedika, 2017. "Trade, aid and terror," International Journal of Development Issues, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 16(1), pages 2-24, April.
    20. Asongu, Simplice A. & Tchamyou, Vanessa S. & Minkoua N., Jules R. & Asongu, Ndemaze & Tchamyou, Nina P., 2018. "Fighting terrorism in Africa: Benchmarking policy harmonization," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 492(C), pages 1931-1957.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Africa; Capital flight; Foreign capital; Terrorism; Violence;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C50 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - General
    • D74 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - Conflict; Conflict Resolution; Alliances; Revolutions
    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
    • N40 - Economic History - - Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation - - - General, International, or Comparative
    • O55 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Africa

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:abh:wpaper:16/022. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Anutechia Asongu Simplice). General contact details of provider: http://www.resanet.org .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.