IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/abh/wpaper/17-059.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Murder Epidemic: A Global Comparative Study

Author

Listed:
  • Simplice A. Asongu

    (Yaoundé/Cameroon)

  • Paul N. Acha-Anyi

    (Pretoria, South Africa)

Abstract

We build on literature from policy and academic circles to assess if Latin America is leading when it comes to persistence in homicides. The focus is on a global sample of 163 countries for the period 2010 to 2015. The empirical evidence is based on Generalised Method of Moments. The following main finding is established. The region with the highest evidence of persistence in homicides is sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), followed by Latin America, the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and then by Europe & Central Asia (ECA). In order to increase room for policy implications, the dataset is decomposed into income levels, religious domination, landlockedness and legal origins. From the conditioning information set, the following factors account for persistence in global homicides: crime, political instability and weapons import positively affect homicides whereas the number of “security and police officers†has the opposite effect.

Suggested Citation

  • Simplice A. Asongu & Paul N. Acha-Anyi, 2017. "The Murder Epidemic: A Global Comparative Study," Research Africa Network Working Papers 17/059, Research Africa Network (RAN).
  • Handle: RePEc:abh:wpaper:17/059
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://publications.resanet.org/RePEc/abh/abh-wpaper/The-Murder-Epidemic-A-Global-Comparative-Study.pdf
    File Function: Revised version, 2017
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. La Porta, Rafael & Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert, 1999. "The Quality of Government," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 15(1), pages 222-279, April.
    2. Simplice A Asongu, 2014. "On the substitution of institutions and finance in investment," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 34(3), pages 1557-1574.
    3. Asongu, Simplice A. & Nwachukwu, Jacinta C., 2016. "The Mobile Phone in the Diffusion of Knowledge for Institutional Quality in Sub-Saharan Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 133-147.
    4. Vanessa Simen Tchamyou, 2020. "Education, lifelong learning, inequality and financial access: evidence from African countries," Contemporary Social Science, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(1), pages 7-25, January.
    5. Vanessa S. Tchamyou & Simplice A. Asongu, 2017. "Information Sharing and Financial Sector Development in Africa," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(1), pages 24-49, January.
    6. Asongu, Simplice A. & Nwachukwu, Jacinta C., 2016. "The role of governance in mobile phones for inclusive human development in Sub-Saharan Africa," Technovation, Elsevier, vol. 55, pages 1-13.
    7. Stephen Bond & Anke Hoeffler & Jonathan Temple, 2001. "GMM Estimation of Empirical Growth Models," Economics Papers 2001-W21, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
    8. Freytag, Andreas & Krüger, Jens J. & Meierrieks, Daniel & Schneider, Friedrich, 2011. "The origins of terrorism: Cross-country estimates of socio-economic determinants of terrorism," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 27(S1), pages 5-16.
    9. Montfort Mlachila & René Tapsoba & Sampawende J. A. Tapsoba, 2017. "A Quality of Growth Index for Developing Countries: A Proposal," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 134(2), pages 675-710, November.
    10. David Roodman, 2009. "How to do xtabond2: An introduction to difference and system GMM in Stata," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 9(1), pages 86-136, March.
    11. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2016. "Foreign aid and governance in Africa," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(1), pages 69-88, January.
    12. Robert J. Barro, 1991. "Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(2), pages 407-443.
    13. Julio H. Cole & Andrés Marroquín Gramajo, 2009. "Homicide Rates in a Cross‐Section of Countries: Evidence and Interpretations," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 35(4), pages 749-776, December.
    14. Simplice A Asongu & Lieven De Moor, 2017. "Financial Globalisation Dynamic Thresholds for Financial Development: Evidence from Africa," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 29(1), pages 192-212, January.
    15. Beck, Thorsten & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Levine, Ross, 2003. "Law and finance: why does legal origin matter?," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 653-675, December.
    16. Narayan, Paresh Kumar & Mishra, Sagarika & Narayan, Seema, 2011. "Do market capitalization and stocks traded converge? New global evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 2771-2781, October.
    17. Asongu Simplice & Nwachukwu Jacinta, 2018. "Fighting Terrorism: Empirics on Policy Harmonisation," German Economic Review, De Gruyter, vol. 19(3), pages 237-259, August.
    18. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2016. "Revolution empirics: predicting the Arab Spring," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 51(2), pages 439-482, September.
    19. Simplice Asongu & Vanessa Tchamyou & Ndemaze Asongu & Nina Tchamyou, 2019. "Fighting terrorism in Africa: evidence from bundling and unbundling institutions," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 56(3), pages 883-933, March.
    20. Simplice Asongu & Oasis Kodila-Tedika, 2016. "Fighting African conflicts and crimes: which governance tools matter?," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 43(5), pages 466-485, May.
    21. Subhayu Bandyopadhyay & Todd Sandler & Javed Younas, 2014. "Foreign direct investment, aid, and terrorism," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 66(1), pages 25-50, January.
    22. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2017. "The Comparative Inclusive Human Development of Globalisation in Africa," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 134(3), pages 1027-1050, December.
    23. Asongu, Simplice A. & Le Roux, Sara, 2017. "Enhancing ICT for inclusive human development in Sub-Saharan Africa," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 44-54.
    24. Simplice A. Asongu, 2013. "African Stock Market Performance Dynamics: A Multidimensional Convergence Assessment," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(3), pages 186-201, December.
    25. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
    26. Luisa Blanco & Robin Grier, 2009. "Long Live Democracy: The Determinants of Political Instability in Latin America," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(1), pages 76-95.
    27. Simplice Asongu, 2014. "African Development: Beyond Income Convergence," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 82(3), pages 334-353, September.
    28. Giuseppe Bruno & Riccardo De Bonis, 2009. "Do financial systems converge? New evidence from household financial assets in selected OECD countries," IFC Bulletins chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Proceedings of the IFC Conference on "Measuring financial innovation and its impact", Basel, 26-27 August 2008, volume 31, pages 383-401, Bank for International Settlements.
    29. Simplice Asongu & Vanessa Tchamyou & Ndemaze Asongu & Nina Tchamyou, 2017. "The Comparative African Economics of Inclusive Development and Military Expenditure in Fighting Terrorism," Journal of African Development, African Finance and Economic Association (AFEA), vol. 19(2), pages 77-91.
    30. N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1992. "A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(2), pages 407-437.
    31. Andreas Stephan & Andriy Tsapin, 2008. "Persistence and Determinants of Firm Profit in Emerging Markets," Applied Economics Quarterly (formerly: Konjunkturpolitik), Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 54(4), pages 231-254.
    32. David Mayer-Foulkes, 2010. "Divergences and Convergences in Human Development," Working papers DTE 481, CIDE, División de Economía.
    33. Badi H. Baltagi, 2008. "Forecasting with panel data," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(2), pages 153-173.
    34. Asongu, Simplice A. & Tchamyou, Vanessa S. & Minkoua N., Jules R. & Asongu, Ndemaze & Tchamyou, Nina P., 2018. "Fighting terrorism in Africa: Benchmarking policy harmonization," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 492(C), pages 1931-1957.
    35. Fung, Michael K., 2009. "Financial development and economic growth: Convergence or divergence?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 56-67, February.
    36. Bruno, Giuseppe & De Bonis, Riccardo & Silvestrini, Andrea, 2012. "Do financial systems converge? New evidence from financial assets in OECD countries," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 141-155.
    37. Lant Pritchett, 1997. "Divergence, Big Time," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 11(3), pages 3-17, Summer.
    38. J.A. Agbor & J. W. Fedderke & N. Viegi, 2010. "How Does Colonial Origin Matter for Economic Performance in sub-Saharan Africa?," Working Papers 176, Economic Research Southern Africa.
    39. Baumol, William J, 1986. "Productivity Growth, Convergence, and Welfare: What the Long-run Data Show," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 1072-1085, December.
    40. Kathleen Beegle & Luc Christiaensen & Andrew Dabalen & Isis Gaddis, 2016. "Poverty in a Rising Africa," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 22575, July.
    41. Mariusz Próchniak & Bartosz Witkowski, 2012. "Real economic convergence and the impact of monetary policy on economic growth of the EU countries: The analysis of time stability and the identification of major turning points based on the Bayesian ," NBP Working Papers 137, Narodowy Bank Polski, Economic Research Department.
    42. David Roodman, 2009. "A Note on the Theme of Too Many Instruments," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 71(1), pages 135-158, February.
    43. repec:hrv:faseco:30747160 is not listed on IDEAS
    44. Stephen Bond & Anke Hoeffler, 2001. "GMM Estimation of Empirical Growth Models," Economics Series Working Papers 2001-W21, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    45. Hannu Tanninen, 1999. "Income inequality, government expenditures and growth," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(9), pages 1109-1117.
    46. Goddard, John & Liu, Hong & Molyneux, Philip & Wilson, John O.S., 2011. "The persistence of bank profit," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(11), pages 2881-2890, November.
    47. Doyle, Joanne M., 2017. "Persistence in the long-run expected rate of return for corporate pension plans," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 271-277.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Asongu, Simplice & Acha-Anyi, Paul, 2019. "Global Tourism and Waves of Terror: Perspectives from Military Expenditure," MPRA Paper 101793, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Simplice Asongu & Christelle Meniago, 2018. "Technology and persistence in global software piracy," Netnomics, Springer, vol. 19(1), pages 43-63, October.
    3. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu & Chris Pyke, 2019. "The Right to Life: Global Evidence on the Role of Security Officers and the Police in Modulating the Effect of Insecurity on Homicide," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 143(2), pages 727-740, June.
    4. Simplice A. Asongu, 2019. "The persistence of global terrorism," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 19/053, African Governance and Development Institute..
    5. Asongu, Simplice A. & Uduji, Joseph I. & Okolo-Obasi, Elda N., 2019. "Homicide and social media: Global empirical evidence," Technology in Society, Elsevier, vol. 59(C).
    6. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu & Stella-Maris I. Orim & Chris Pyke, 2019. "Crime and Social Media," Research Africa Network Working Papers 19/003, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    7. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2018. "Mitigating externalities of terrorism on tourism: global evidence from police, security officers and armed service personnel," Research Africa Network Working Papers 18/036, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    8. Asongu, Simplice & Nnanna, Joseph & Biekpe, Nicholas & Acha-Anyi, Paul, 2018. "Contemporary Drivers of Global Tourism: Evidence from Terrorism and Peace Factors," MPRA Paper 91996, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Simplice A. Asongu & Joseph I. Uduji & Elda N. Okolo-Obasi, 2019. "The Persistence of Weapons: Global Evidence," Working Papers 19/068, European Xtramile Centre of African Studies (EXCAS).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Simplice Asongu, 2017. "Persistence in Incarcerations: Global Comparative Evidence," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 17/056, African Governance and Development Institute..
    2. Simplice A. Asongu & Joseph I. Uduji & Elda N. Okolo-Obasi, 2020. "Drivers and persistence of death in conflicts: global evidence," Working Papers 20/066, European Xtramile Centre of African Studies (EXCAS).
    3. Asongu, Simplice & Uduji, Joseph & Okolo-Obasi, Elda, 2020. "Political instability and political terror: global evidence on persistence," MPRA Paper 103147, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Asongu, Simplice & Odhiambo, Nicholas, 2019. "The sustainability of tourism: global comparative evidence," MPRA Paper 102057, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Simplice A. Asongu, 2018. "Comparative sustainable development in sub‐Saharan Africa," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(6), pages 638-651, November.
    6. Simplice A. Asongu & Joseph Nnanna, 2019. "Dynamic Determinants of Access to Weapons: Global Evidence," Foreign Trade Review, , vol. 54(4), pages 334-354, November.
    7. Simplice A. Asongu, 2019. "The persistence of global terrorism," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 19/053, African Governance and Development Institute..
    8. Simplice A. Asongu & Joseph I. Uduji & Elda N. Okolo-Obasi, 2019. "The Persistence of Weapons: Global Evidence," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 19/068, African Governance and Development Institute..
    9. Simplice A. Asongu & Joseph Nnanna, 2019. "Determinants of Access to Weapons: Global Evidence," Working Papers 19/008, European Xtramile Centre of African Studies (EXCAS).
    10. Simplice Asongu & Christelle Meniago, 2018. "Technology and persistence in global software piracy," Netnomics, Springer, vol. 19(1), pages 43-63, October.
    11. Asongu, Simplice A. & Tchamyou, Vanessa S. & Minkoua N., Jules R. & Asongu, Ndemaze & Tchamyou, Nina P., 2018. "Fighting terrorism in Africa: Benchmarking policy harmonization," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 492(C), pages 1931-1957.
    12. Asongu, Simplice A. & Nwachukwu, Jacinta C. & Orim, Stella-Maris I., 2018. "Mobile phones, institutional quality and entrepreneurship in Sub-Saharan Africa," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 131(C), pages 183-203.
    13. Asongu, Simplice & Nwachukwu, Jacinta, 2016. "Mobile Phones in the Diffusion of Knowledge and Persistence in Inclusive Human Development in Sub-Saharan Africa," MPRA Paper 73091, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised May 2016.
    14. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2017. "Not all that glitters is gold: ICT and inclusive human development in Sub-Saharan Africa," International Journal of Happiness and Development, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 3(4), pages 303-322.
    15. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2017. "Openness, ICT and Entrepreneurship in Sub-Saharan Africa," Research Africa Network Working Papers 17/032, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    16. Simplice A. Asongu & Sara le Roux & Jacinta Nwachukwu & Chris Pyke, 2018. "The Mobile Phone as an Argument for Good Governance in sub-Saharan Africa," Working Papers 2 4004, Office Of The Chief Economist, Development Bank of Nigeria.
    17. Asongu, Simplice & Biekpe, Nicholas, 2017. "Mobile Phone Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Sub-Saharan Africa," MPRA Paper 81703, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Simplice A. Asongu, 2017. "Knowledge Economy Gaps, Policy Syndromes, and Catch-Up Strategies: Fresh South Korean Lessons to Africa," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 8(1), pages 211-253, March.
    19. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2019. "The role of openness in the effect of ICT on governance," Information Technology for Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(3), pages 503-531, July.
    20. Asongu, Simplice A. & Nwachukwu, Jacinta C., 2016. "The Mobile Phone in the Diffusion of Knowledge for Institutional Quality in Sub-Saharan Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 133-147.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Homicides; Global evidence; Persistence; Latin America;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • K42 - Law and Economics - - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior - - - Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law
    • P50 - Economic Systems - - Comparative Economic Systems - - - General

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:abh:wpaper:17/059. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.resanet.org .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Anutechia Asongu Simplice (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.resanet.org .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.