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Divergences and Convergences in Human Development

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  • David Mayer-Foulkes

    () (Division of Economics, CIDE)

Abstract

I conduct a cross-country analysis of the human development index (HDI) components, income, life expectancy, literacy and gross enrolment ratios, using Gray and Purser’s 1970-2005 quinquennial database for 111 countries. 1) A descriptive analysis uncovers a complex pattern of divergence and convergence for these components’ evolution. Development is not a smooth process but consists of a series of superposed transitions each taking off with increasing divergence and then converging. 2) Absolute divergence/convergence for the HDI components is decomposed using simultaneous growth regressions including a full set of quadratic interactions between the HDI components, and indicators of urbanization, trade, institutions, foreign direct investment and physical geography. These are implemented, first, using three stage least squares, all of the non-exogenous independent variables fully instrumented, and second, as independent regressions with errors clustered by countries, again all non-exogenous variables instrumented. 3) A set of quantile regressions is run for the HDI component levels on the same variables (just the linear terms), again fully instrumented. Urbanization is a leading significant variable for human development indicators in both sets of estimates, stronger than trade, FDI and institutional indicators. These indicators act with ambiguous signs that may result from their distributive impacts, reducing their effectiveness. The results indicate that improving markets will have smaller returns than complementing them with institutions that can coordinate urbanization as well as investment in human capital. Urbanization itself can provide a concrete agenda for development involving all aspects of economic, political and social life as well as human development.

Suggested Citation

  • David Mayer-Foulkes, 2010. "Divergences and Convergences in Human Development," Working papers DTE 481, CIDE, División de Economía.
  • Handle: RePEc:emc:wpaper:dte481
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    Cited by:

    1. Asongu, Simplice A. & Nwachukwu, Jacinta C., 2016. "The Mobile Phone in the Diffusion of Knowledge for Institutional Quality in Sub-Saharan Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 133-147.
    2. Asongu Simplice, 2014. "Fresh Patterns of Liberalization, Bank Return and Return Uncertainty in Africa," Working Papers 14/004, African Governance and Development Institute..
    3. Simplice Asongu & Paul Acha-Anyi, 2017. "The Murder Epidemic: A Global Comparative Study," Working Papers 17/059, African Governance and Development Institute..
    4. Simplice Asongu & Ivo Leke, 2017. "External Flows and Inclusive Human Development in Sub-Saharan Africa," Working Papers 17/058, African Governance and Development Institute..
    5. Prados de la Escosura, Leandro, 2013. "Human development in Africa: A long-run perspective," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 179-204.
    6. Michael Binder & Georgios Georgiadis, 2010. "Determinants of Human Development: Insights from State-Dependent Panel Models," Human Development Research Papers (2009 to present) HDRP-2010-24, Human Development Report Office (HDRO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
    7. Asongu, Simplice & Nwachukwu, Jacinta, 2016. "Mobile Phones in the Diffusion of Knowledge and Persistence in Inclusive Human Development in Sub-Saharan Africa," MPRA Paper 73091, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised May 2016.
    8. Simplice Asongu & Paul Acha-Anyi, 2017. "The Murder Epidemic: A Global Comparative Study," Working Papers 17/059, African Governance and Development Institute..
    9. repec:spr:jknowl:v:8:y:2017:i:1:d:10.1007_s13132-015-0321-0 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Michael Binder & Georgios Georgiadis, 2011. "Determinants of Human Development: Capturing the Role of Institutions," CESifo Working Paper Series 3397, CESifo Group Munich.
    11. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2016. "Revolution empirics: predicting the Arab Spring," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 51(2), pages 439-482, September.
    12. Simplice Asongu, 2017. "Persistence in Incarcerations: Global Comparative Evidence," Working Papers 17/056, African Governance and Development Institute..
    13. Asongu, Simplice A. & Tchamyou, Vanessa S. & Minkoua N., Jules R. & Asongu, Ndemaze & Tchamyou, Nina P., 2018. "Fighting terrorism in Africa: Benchmarking policy harmonization," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 492(C), pages 1931-1957.
    14. Simplice Asongu & Vanessa Tchamyou & Paul Acha-Anyi, 2017. "Who is Who in Knowledge Economy in Africa?," Working Papers 17/043, African Governance and Development Institute..
    15. Asongu, Simplice & Nwachukwu, Jacinta, 2017. "Openness, ICT and Entrepreneurship in Sub-Saharan Africa," MPRA Paper 83070, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2016. "Rational Asymmetric Development, Piketty and Poverty in Africa," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 13(2), pages 221-246, December.
    17. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2016. "A Brief Future of Time in the Monopoly of Scientific Knowledge," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Association for Comparative Economic Studies, vol. 58(4), pages 638-671, December.
    18. Simplice A. Asongu, 2017. "Knowledge Economy Gaps, Policy Syndromes, and Catch-Up Strategies: Fresh South Korean Lessons to Africa," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 8(1), pages 211-253, March.
    19. Simplice Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2015. "Fighting Terrorism: Empirics on Policy Harmonization," Working Papers 15/024, African Governance and Development Institute..
    20. Simplice Asongu & Jacinta Nwachukwu, 2017. "The Role of Openness in the Effect of ICT on Governance," Working Papers 17/050, African Governance and Development Institute..
    21. Simplice Asongu & Vanessa Tchamyou, 2018. "Human Capital, Knowledge Creation, Knowledge Diffusion, Institutions and Economic Incentives: South Korea versus Africa," Working Papers 18/008, African Governance and Development Institute..
    22. David Mayer-Foulkes, 2011. "A Causal Panorama of Cross-Country Human Development," DEGIT Conference Papers c016_049, DEGIT, Dynamics, Economic Growth, and International Trade.
    23. Simplice Asongu, 2015. "Rational Asymmetric Development, Piketty and the Spirit of Poverty in Africa," Working Papers 15/006, African Governance and Development Institute..
    24. Simplice Asongu, 2014. "African Development: Beyond Income Convergence," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 82(3), pages 334-353, September.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    human development; cross-country analysis; urbanization;

    JEL classification:

    • C31 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models; Quantile Regressions; Social Interaction Models
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

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