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Earnings Inequality and the Intersectionality of Gender and Ethnicity in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Tanzanian Manufacturing

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  • Juliet U. Elu
  • Linda Loubert

Abstract

This paper estimates quantile earnings functions with data from the 2004 Tanzanian Household Worker Survey to determine if ethnicity and gender--being female--matters per se and across the distribution of earnings. We find that in the Tanzanian manufacturing sector gender intersects with ethnicity to condition earnings and the return to schooling across the distribution of earnings. This suggests that in Sub-Saharan Africa--at least in Tanzania--labor market policies aimed at eradicating gender earnings inequality may not be effective if not accompanied by policies that also aim to eradicate ethnic inequality.

Suggested Citation

  • Juliet U. Elu & Linda Loubert, 2013. "Earnings Inequality and the Intersectionality of Gender and Ethnicity in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Tanzanian Manufacturing," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 103(3), pages 289-292, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:aea:aecrev:v:103:y:2013:i:3:p:289-92
    Note: DOI: 10.1257/aer.103.3.289
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Kazeem B. Ajide & Olorunfemi Y. Alimi & Simplice A. Asongu, 2019. "Ethnic Diversity and Inequality in Sub-Saharan Africa: Do Institutions Reduce the Noise?," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 145(3), pages 1033-1062, October.
    2. Asongu, Simplice & De Moor, Lieven, 2015. "Recent advances in finance for inclusive development: a survey," MPRA Paper 67299, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Livini Donath & Oliver Morrissey & Trudy Owens, 2021. "Pay period and the distributional effect of education on earnings: Evidence from recentered influence function," Discussion Papers 2021-02, University of Nottingham, CREDIT.
    4. Simplice Asongu & Uchenna Efobi & Ibukun Beecroft, 2015. "Inclusive Human Development in Pre-crisis Times of Globalization-driven Debts," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 27(4), pages 428-442, December.
    5. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2017. "Foreign Aid and Inclusive Development: Updated Evidence from Africa, 2005–2012," Social Science Quarterly, Southwestern Social Science Association, vol. 98(1), pages 282-298, March.
    6. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2018. "Recent finance advances in information technology for inclusive development: a systematic review," Netnomics, Springer, vol. 19(1), pages 65-93, October.
    7. Simplice Asongu & Nicholas Odhiambo, 2017. "Mobile banking usage, quality of growth, inequality and poverty in developing countries," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 17/046, African Governance and Development Institute..
    8. Oasis Kodila-Tedika & Simplice A. Asongu & Julio Mukendi Kayembe, 2016. "Middle Class in Africa: Determinants and Consequences," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(4), pages 527-549, October.
    9. Osinubi, Tolulope & Asongu, Simplice, 2020. "Globalization and Female Economic Participation in MINT and BRICS countries," MPRA Paper 107138, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Simplice Asongu & Ndemaze Asongu, 2018. "The comparative exploration of mobile money services in inclusive development," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 45(1), pages 124-139, January.
    11. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2017. "Recent finance advances in information technology for inclusive development: a survey," Research Africa Network Working Papers 17/009, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    12. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2015. "Welfare Spending and Quality of Growth in Developing Countries: Evidence from Hopefuls, Contenders and Best Performers," Research Africa Network Working Papers 15/022, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    13. Thomas Masterson & Kijong Kim & Fernando Rios-Avila, 2016. "Simulations of Employment for Individuals in LIMTCP Consumption-poor Households in Tanzania and Ghana, 2012," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_871, Levy Economics Institute.
    14. Simplice A. Asongu & Uchenna R. Efobi & Belmondo V. Tanankem & Evans S. Osabuohien, 2019. "Globalisation and Female Economic Participation in Sub-Saharan Africa," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 19/019, African Governance and Development Institute..
    15. Simplice Asongu, 2014. "A brief clarification to the questionable economics of foreign aid for inclusive human development," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 14/028, African Governance and Development Institute..
    16. Guha Majumdar, Mrittunjoy, 2018. "Identity, Intersectionality and Welfare," SocArXiv etfqm, Center for Open Science.
    17. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2018. "Human development thresholds for inclusive mobile banking in developing countries," Research Africa Network Working Papers 18/022, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    18. Arouri, Mohamed & Ben-Youssef, Adel & Nguyen, Cuong Viet, 2019. "Ethnic and racial disparities in children's education: Comparative evidence from Ethiopia, India, Peru and Viet Nam," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 100(C), pages 503-514.
    19. Arouri, Mohamed & Ben-Youssef, Adel & Nguyen, Cuong Viet, 2019. "Ethnic and racial disparities in children's education: Comparative evidence from Ethiopia, India, Peru and Viet Nam," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 100(C), pages 503-514.

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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • L60 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - General
    • O14 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Industrialization; Manufacturing and Service Industries; Choice of Technology
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

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