IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/unc/dispap/210.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Development Policies and Income Inequality in Selected Developing Regions, 1980–2010

Author

Listed:
  • Giovanni Andrea Cornia
  • Bruno Martorano

Abstract

The paper discusses the income inequality changes which have taken place in a few representative developing regions during the last 30 years. While inequality rose in the majority of the countries of these regions in the 1980s and 1990s, the last decade was characterized by a bifurcation of inequality trends. This divergence offers the possibility to contrast the experience of virtuous regions (Latin America and parts of East and South-East Asia) and non-virtuous regions (the European economies in transition and China) so as to draw useful lessons. Since the global economic conditions affecting inequality in these countries were not too dissimilar and since no major variations in endogenous factors were evident across the regions analysed, the difference in inequality trends between virtuous and non-virtuous regions was most likely due to institutional factors and public policies. An econometric test confirms that the reduction of inequality is possible even under open economy conditions if a given set of appropriate macroeconomic, labour, fiscal and social policies is adopted by governments.

Suggested Citation

  • Giovanni Andrea Cornia & Bruno Martorano, 2012. "Development Policies and Income Inequality in Selected Developing Regions, 1980–2010," UNCTAD Discussion Papers 210, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
  • Handle: RePEc:unc:dispap:210
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/osgdp20124_en.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Mitra, Pradeep & Yemtsov, Ruslan, 2006. "Increasing inequality in transition economies : is there more to come?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4007, The World Bank.
    2. Lucas Assuncao & ZhongXiang Zhang, 2002. "Domestics Climate Change Policies And The Wto," UNCTAD Discussion Papers 164, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    3. Marwan Elkhoury, 2007. "Credit Rating Agencies And Their Potential Impact On Developing Countries," UNCTAD Discussion Papers 186, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    4. Ayhan Kose & Kenneth Rogoff & Eswar S Prasad & Shang-Jin Wei, 2003. "Effects of Financial Globalization on Developing Countries; Some Empirical Evidence," IMF Occasional Papers 220, International Monetary Fund.
    5. repec:unu:wpaper:wp2012-14 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Dani Rodrik, 2008. "The Real Exchange Rate and Economic Growth," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 39(2 (Fall)), pages 365-439.
    7. Robert Rowthorn & Ken Coutts, 2004. "De-industrialisation and the balance of payments in advanced economies," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 28(5), pages 767-790, September.
    8. Alberto Alesina & Dani Rodrik, 1994. "Distributive Politics and Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 109(2), pages 465-490.
    9. Manuel Agosin & Roberto Machado, 2005. "Foreign Investment in Developing Countries: Does it Crowd in Domestic Investment?," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(2), pages 149-162.
    10. Venieris, Yiannis P & Gupta, Dipak K, 1986. "Income Distribution and Sociopolitical Instability as Determinants of Savings: A Cross-sectional Model," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(4), pages 873-883, August.
    11. Mehdi SHAFAEDDIN, 2000. "What Did Frederick List Actually Say? Some Clarifications On The Infant Industry Argument," UNCTAD Discussion Papers 149, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    12. Cecilia Garcia-Penalosa & Eve Caroli & Philippe Aghion, 1999. "Inequality and Economic Growth: The Perspective of the New Growth Theories," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 37(4), pages 1615-1660, December.
    13. Calcagno, Alfredo Fernando & Sáinz, Pedro, 1992. "En busca de otra modalidad de desarrollo," Revista CEPAL, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), December.
    14. José Antonio Ocampo, 2009. "Latin America and the global financial crisis," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 33(4), pages 703-724, July.
    15. Roberto Frenkel & Martin Rapetti, 2008. "Five years of competitive and stable real exchange rate in Argentina, 2002-2007," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(2), pages 215-226.
    16. Zsolt Darvas, 2012. "Real Effective Exchange Rates for 178 Countries: a New Database," Working Papers 1201, Department of Mathematical Economics and Economic Analysis, Corvinus University of Budapest.
    17. Isabel Ortiz & Jingqing Chai & Matthew Cummins & Gabriel Vergara, 2010. "Prioritizing Expenditures for a Recovery for All: A Rapid Review of Public Expenditures in 126 Developing," Working papers 1007, UNICEF,Division of Policy and Strategy.
    18. repec:dau:papers:123456789/10091 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Bruno, Michael & Easterly, William, 1998. "Inflation crises and long-run growth," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 3-26, February.
    20. Alberto Gabriele, 2004. "Policy Alternatives In Reforming Power Utilities In Developing Countries: A Critical Survey," UNCTAD Discussion Papers 168, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    21. Michael Keen & Yitae Kim & Ricardo Varsano, 2008. "The “flat tax(es)”: principles and experience," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 15(6), pages 712-751, December.
    22. Dani Rodrik, 1997. "Has Globalization Gone Too Far?," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 57.
    23. Leonardo Gasparini & Guillermo Cruces & Leopoldo Tornarolli & Mariana Marchionni, 2009. "A Turning Point? Recent Developments on Inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean," CEDLAS, Working Papers 0081, CEDLAS, Universidad Nacional de La Plata.
    24. Martina Metzger, 2008. "Regional Cooperation And Integration In Sub-Saharan Africa," UNCTAD Discussion Papers 189, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    25. Alesina, Alberto & La Ferrara, Eliana, 2005. "Preferences for redistribution in the land of opportunities," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(5-6), pages 897-931, June.
    26. Bicchetti, David & Maystre, Nicolas Maystre, 2013. "The synchronized and long-lasting structural change on commodity markets: Evidence from high frequency data," Algorithmic Finance, IOS Press, vol. 2(3-4), pages 233-239.
    27. Inyong SHIN & Eiji YAMAMURA & Hyunho KIM, 2012. "The Cubic Form Hypothesis And The Flying Geese Pattern Hypothesis Of Income Distribution: The Case Of Korea," Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management, Research Centre in Public Administration and Public Services, Bucharest, Romania, vol. 7(3), pages 5-23, August.
    28. Keifman, Saúl & Maurizio, Roxana, 2012. "Changes in Labour Market Conditions and Policies: Their Impact on Wage Inequality During the Last Decade," WIDER Working Paper Series 014, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    29. Hans P. Binswanger & Klaus Deininger, 1997. "Explaining Agricultural and Agrarian Policies in Developing Countries," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 35(4), pages 1958-2005, December.
    30. Cornia, Giovanni Andrea & Martorano, Bruno, 2011. "A New Fiscal Pact, Tax Policy Changes and Income Inequality," WIDER Working Paper Series 070, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    31. Anders Aslund, 2009. "The East European Financial Crisis," CASE Network Studies and Analyses 0395, CASE-Center for Social and Economic Research.
    32. Anders Aslund, 2010. "The Last Shall Be the First: The East European Financial Crisis," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 5218.
    33. Yuefen Li, 2003. "China´S Accession To Wto: Exaggerated Fears?," UNCTAD Discussion Papers 165, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    34. Cruces, Guillermo & Gasparini, Leonardo, 2011. "Inequality in Education: Evidence for Latin America," WIDER Working Paper Series 093, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    35. di Gropello, Emanuela & Sakellariou , Chris, 2010. "Industry and skill wage premiums in east Asia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5379, The World Bank.
    36. Steve Kayizzi-Mugerwa, 2001. "Globalisation, Growth and Income Inequality: The African Experience," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 186, OECD Publishing.
    37. Liliana Rojas-Suarez, 2010. "The International Financial Crisis: Eight Lessons for and from Latin America," Working Papers 202, Center for Global Development.
    38. S.M. Shafaeddin, 2002. "The Impact Of China´S Accession To Wto On The Exports Of Developing Countries," UNCTAD Discussion Papers 160, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    39. Heiner FLASSBECK, 2002. "The Exchange Rate: Economic Policy Tool Or Market Price?," UNCTAD Discussion Papers 157, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    40. Michael Geiger, 2008. "Instruments Of Monetary Policy In China And Their Effectiveness: 1994–2006," UNCTAD Discussion Papers 187, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    41. S.M. Shafaeddin, 2005. "Trade Liberalization And Economic Reform In Developing Countries: Structural Change Or De-Industrialization?," UNCTAD Discussion Papers 179, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    42. B. Andersen, & Z. Kozul-Wright & R. Kozul-Wright, 2000. "Copyrights, Competition And Development: The Case Of The Music Industry," UNCTAD Discussion Papers 145, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    43. Shigehisa Kasahara, 2004. "The Flying Geese Paradigm: A Critical Study Of Its Application To East Asian Regional Development," UNCTAD Discussion Papers 169, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    44. van de Walle, Dominique, 1998. "Assessing the welfare impacts of public spending," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 365-379, March.
    45. Boonperm, Jirawan & Haughton, Jonathan & Khandker, Shahidur R., 2009. "Does the village fund matter in Thailand ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5011, The World Bank.
    46. Christopher F Baum & Vince Wiggins & Steven Stillman & Mark E Schaffer, 1999. "OVERID: Stata module to calculate tests of overidentifying restrictions after ivreg2, ivreg29, ivregress, ivprobit, ivtobit, reg3," Statistical Software Components S396902, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 18 May 2016.
    47. Emanuele Bacchiocchi & Alessandro Missale, 2015. "Multilateral indexed loans and debt sustainability," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 31(3-4), pages 305-329.
    48. Alberto GABRIELE, 2001. "Science And Technology Policies, Industrial Reform And Technical Progress In China. Can Socialist Property Rights Be Compatible With Technological Catching Up?," UNCTAD Discussion Papers 155, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    49. Sebastian Dullien, 2009. "Central Banking, Financial Institutions And Credit Creation In Developing Countries," UNCTAD Discussion Papers 193, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Jörg Mayer, 2013. "Towards More Balanced Growth Strategies In Developing Countries: Issues Related To Market Size, Trade Balances And Purchasing Power," UNCTAD Discussion Papers 214, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    2. Bruno Martorano, 2018. "Taxation and Inequality in Developing Countries: Lessons from the Recent Experience of Latin America," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 30(2), pages 256-273, March.
    3. Bruno Martorano, 2015. "Lessons from the recent economic crisis: the Australian household stimulus package," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(3), pages 309-327, May.
    4. Aguiar de Medeiros, Carlos & Trebat, Nicholas, 2016. "Latin America at a Crossroads: Controversies on Growth, Income Distribution and Structural Change," Centro Sraffa Working Papers CSWP22, Centro di Ricerche e Documentazione "Piero Sraffa".
    5. Cornia, Giovanni Andrea, 2014. "Income inequality in Latin America. Recent decline and prospects for its further reduction," Macroeconomía del Desarrollo 149, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).
    6. Heshmati, Almas & Kim, Jungsuk, 2014. "A Survey of the Role of Fiscal Policy in Addressing Income Inequality, Poverty Reduction and Inclusive Growth," IZA Discussion Papers 8119, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    7. Carlos M. Correa, 2015. "Intellectual property: How much room is left for industrial policy?," UNCTAD Discussion Papers 223, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    8. Bruno Martorano, 2013. "The Australian Household Stimulus Package: Lessons from the recent economic crisis," Papers inwopa697, Innocenti Working Papers.
    9. Andrew Cornford, 2014. "Macroprudential Regulation: Potential Implications For Rules For Cross-Border Banking," UNCTAD Discussion Papers 216, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    10. Fernando Rugitsky, 2017. "The rise and fall of the Brazilian economy (2004-2015): the economic antimiracle," Working Papers, Department of Economics 2017_29, University of São Paulo (FEA-USP).
    11. André Nassif & Carmem Feijó & Eliane Araújo, 2015. "Structural change and economic development: is Brazil catching up or falling behind?," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 39(5), pages 1307-1332.
    12. Giovanni Andrea Cornia, 2018. "Eradicating Poverty by 2030: Implications for Income Inequality, Population Policies, Food Prices (and Faster Growth?)," Working Papers - Economics wp2018_09.rdf, Universita' degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze per l'Economia e l'Impresa.
    13. Giovanni Andrea Cornia, 2012. "The New Structuralist Macroeconomics and Income Inequality," Working Papers - Economics wp2012_25.rdf, Universita' degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze per l'Economia e l'Impresa.
    14. Kalle Hirvonen & Giulia Mascagni & Keetie Roelen, 2016. "Linking taxation and social protection Evidence on redistribution and poverty reduction in Ethiopia," WIDER Working Paper Series 111, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    15. Alfredo Saad-Filho, 2015. "Social Policy for Neoliberalism: The Bolsa Família Programme in Brazil," Development and Change, International Institute of Social Studies, vol. 46(6), pages 1227-1252, November.
    16. Ulrich Hoffmann, 2015. "Can green growth really work and what are the true (socio-)economics of Climate Change?," UNCTAD Discussion Papers 222, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    17. Bruno Martorano, & Giovanni Andrea Cornia & Frances Stewart, 2012. "Human Development and Fiscal Policy: Comparing the Crises of 1982-85 and 2008-11," Working Papers - Economics wp2012_23.rdf, Universita' degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze per l'Economia e l'Impresa.
    18. Birdsall, Nancy & Lustig, Nora & Meyer, Christian J., 2014. "The Strugglers: The New Poor in Latin America?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 132-146.
    19. Sung-Jin Kang & Robert Rudolf, 2016. "Rising Or Falling Inequality In Korea? Population Aging And Generational Trends," The Singapore Economic Review (SER), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 61(05), pages 1-26, December.
    20. Shigehisa Kasahara, 2013. "The Asian Developmental State And The Flying Geese Paradigm," UNCTAD Discussion Papers 213, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    21. Hassine, Nadia Belhaj, 2014. "Economic inequality in the Arab region," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6911, The World Bank.
    22. Stephany Griffith-Jones, 2014. "A Brics Development Bank: A Dream Coming True?," UNCTAD Discussion Papers 215, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    23. Filimonov, Vladimir & Bicchetti, David & Maystre, Nicolas & Sornette, Didier, 2014. "Quantification of the high level of endogeneity and of structural regime shifts in commodity markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 174-192.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution
    • E60 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - General
    • I38 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Government Programs; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
    • J08 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - General - - - Labor Economics Policies
    • P51 - Economic Systems - - Comparative Economic Systems - - - Comparative Analysis of Economic Systems

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:unc:dispap:210. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joerg Mayer). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/unctach.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.