IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/wbk/wbrwps/1765.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Explaining agricultural and agrarian policies in developing countries

Author

Listed:
  • Binswanger, Hans P.
  • Deininger, Klaus

Abstract

Political outcomes - such as agricultural taxation, subsidization, and the provision of public goods - result from political bargaining among interest groups. Such bargaining is likely to be efficiency-enhancing and growth-enhancing when equally powerful interest groups - aware of the economywide budget constraint and know the economic implications of different policy options - participate, and when impartial institutions are available to enforce decisions. The greater the deviation from these conditions, the greater the potential for efficiency-reducing outcomes, the costs of which will generally fall disproportionately on politically underrepresented or powerless groups. Material conditions of agriculture production - such as spatial dispersion, seasonal work cycles, covariance of risk, and the associated market imperfections - exacerbate the difficulties faced by small producers to engage in collective action. So, despite being generally the economically most efficient form of production, family farmers'ability to counteract the political influence of rural elites and urban dwellers is extremely limited. Lack of independent institutions and clearly defined property rights - and the presence of organizational residues - not only reduce peasants'bargaining power but may also make it more profitable for powerful groups to prefer rent seeking to productive activities. How can these undesirable outcomes be avoided, and how can sustainable policy changes be initiated? Experience indicates that fiscal crises of the state, often triggered or aggravated by an external shock, can cause lasting changes of policies and institutions. By forcing the state to devolve some of its power in exchange for financial assistance to meet its immediate needs, such a crisis can give rise to the emergence of independent legal, political, and economic institutions that are maintained even once the crisis has subsided, External actors that provide resources in terms of crisis and at the same time enhance the scope for politically least vocal parts of civil society to participate in political discourse can have a significant impact on changing policy. The paper discusses in detail the implications for research as well as for policy advice.

Suggested Citation

  • Binswanger, Hans P. & Deininger, Klaus, 1997. "Explaining agricultural and agrarian policies in developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1765, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:1765
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1997/05/01/000009265_3971126124251/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Hammer, Jeffrey S, 1997. "Economic Analysis for Health Projects," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 12(1), pages 47-71, February.
    2. Schwartz, J Brad & Akin, John S & Popkin, Barry M, 1988. "Price and Income Elasticities of Demand for Modern Health Care: The Case of Infant Delivery in the Philippines," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 2(1), pages 49-76, January.
    3. Light, Donald W., 1992. "Equity and efficiency in health care," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 465-469, August.
    4. Yoder, Richard A., 1989. "Are people willing and able to pay for health services?," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 35-42, January.
    5. Stanton, Bonita & Clemens, John, 1989. "User fees for health care in developing countries: A case study of Bangladesh," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 29(10), pages 1199-1205, January.
    6. Ellis, Randall P., 1987. "The revenue generating potential of user fees in Kenyan government health facilities," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 25(9), pages 995-1002, January.
    7. Gertler, Paul & Locay, Luis & Sanderson, Warren, 1987. "Are user fees regressive? : The welfare implications of health care financing proposals in Peru," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 36(1-2), pages 67-88.
    8. Lavy, V. & Quigley, J.M., 1993. "Willingness to Pay for the Quality and Intensity of Midical Care; Low- Income Households in Ghana," Papers 94, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement.
    9. Lavy, Victor & Strauss, John & Thomas, Duncan & de Vreyer, Philippe, 1996. "Quality of health care, survival and health outcomes in Ghana," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 333-357, June.
    10. Mwabu, Germano, 1990. "Financing health services in Africa : an assessment of alternative approaches," Policy Research Working Paper Series 457, The World Bank.
    11. Besley, Timothy & Coate, Stephen, 1991. "Public Provision of Private Goods and the Redistribution of Income," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, pages 979-984.
    12. McPake, Barbara, 1993. "User charges for health services in developing countries: A review of the economic literature," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 36(11), pages 1397-1405, June.
    13. Hammer, Jeffrey S, 1997. "Prices and Protocols in Public Health Care," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 11(3), pages 409-432, September.
    14. Weaver, Marcia & Wong, Holly & Sako, Amadou Sekou & Simon, Robert & Lee, Felix, 1994. "Prospects for reform of hospital fees in sub-Saharan Africa: A case study of Niamey National Hospital in Niger," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 565-574, February.
    15. Alderman, H. & Gertler, P., 1989. "The Substitutability Of Public And Private Health Care For The Treatment Of Children In Pakistan," Papers 57, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement.
    16. Benefo, Kofi & Schultz, T Paul, 1996. "Fertility and Child Mortality in Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 10(1), pages 123-158, January.
    17. Lewis, Maureen A, 1993. "User Fees in Public Hospitals: Comparison of Three Country Case Studies," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 41(3), pages 513-532, April.
    18. Akin, John S, et al, 1986. "The Demand for Primary Health Care Services in the Bicol Region of the Philippines," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 34(4), pages 755-782, July.
    19. Thomas, D. & Lavy, V. & Strauss, J., 1992. "Public Policy and Anthropometric Outcomes in Cote d'Ivoire," Papers 89, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement.
    20. Vogel, R.J., 1988. "Cost Recovery In The Health Care Sector - Selected Country Studies In West Africa," Papers 82, World Bank - Technical Papers.
    21. Alderman, Harold & Lavy, Victor, 1996. "Household Responses to Public Health Services: Cost and Quality Tradeoffs," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 11(1), pages 3-22, February.
    22. Huber, Joyce H., 1993. "Ensuring access to health care with the introduction of user fees: A Kenyan example," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 485-494, February.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:1765. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/dvewbus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.