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National Innovation System And Macroeconomic Policies: Brazil And India In Comparative Perspective

  • André Nassif
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    Efforts towards economic development in Brazil and India share some common aspects. From the beginning of the 1950s to the end of the 1980s, both countries adopted import substitution policies including high tariffs and non-tariff barriers. Since the beginning of the 1990s, liberalizing economic reforms have been implemented by the respective Governments. If we compare the reach of the Brazilian reform to that of India, one could easily conclude that the former was more extensive and profound than the latter; and in conventional indicators of innovative effort such as research and development expenditures, education coverage, average years of education and literacy rate, Brazil’s results are a little bit better than those of India. However, since the beginning of the 1980s, India has been showing better general economic performance than Brazil. This paper argues and gives some empirical evidence to show that India’s performance is explained by its institutional capacity for coordinating conventional macroeconomic policies with other policies related to its National Innovation System.

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    Paper provided by United Nations Conference on Trade and Development in its series UNCTAD Discussion Papers with number 184.

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    Date of creation: 2007
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    Handle: RePEc:unc:dispap:184
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    1. Leonardo Leiderman & Carmen Reinhart & Guillermo Calvo, 1992. "Capital Inflows and Real Exchange Rate Appreciation in Latin America; The Role of External Factors," IMF Working Papers 92/62, International Monetary Fund.
    2. Fernando Ferrari-Filho & Frederico G. Jayme Jr & Gilberto Tadeu Lima & José Luís Oreiro & Luiz Fernando de Paula, 2004. "Uma avaliação crítica da proposta de conversibilidade plena do real," Textos para Discussão Cedeplar-UFMG td235, Cedeplar, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.
    3. Bhagwati, Jagdish, 1993. "India in Transition: Freeing the Economy," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198288473.
    4. M S Mohanty & Michela Scatigna, 2005. "Has globalisation reduced monetary policy independence?," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Globalisation and monetary policy in emerging markets, volume 23, pages 17-58 Bank for International Settlements.
    5. Coriat, Benjamin & Weinstein, Olivier, 2002. "Organizations, firms and institutions in the generation of innovation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 273-290, February.
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