IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/rdg/icmadp/icma-dp2017-09.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Harmful Diversification: Evidence from Alternative Investments

Author

Listed:
  • Emmanouil Platanakis

    () (School of Management, University of Bath)

  • Athanasios Sakkas

    () (Southampton Business School, University of Southampton)

  • Charles Sutcliffe

    () (ICMA Centre, Henley Business School, University of Reading)

Abstract

Alternative assets have become as important as equities and fixed income in the portfolios of major investors, and so their diversification properties are also important. However, adding five alternative assets (real estate, commodities, hedge funds, emerging markets and private equity) to equity and bond portfolios is shown to be harmful for US investors. We use 19 portfolio models, in conjunction with dummy variable regression, to demonstrate this harm over the 1997-2015 period. This finding is robust to different estimation periods, risk aversion levels, and the use of two regimes. Harmful diversification into alternatives is not primarily due to transactions costs or non-normality, but to estimation risk. This is larger for alternative assets, particularly during the credit crisis which accounts for the harmful diversification of real estate, private equity and emerging markets. Diversification into commodities, and to a lesser extent hedge funds, remains harmful even when the credit crisis is excluded.

Suggested Citation

  • Emmanouil Platanakis & Athanasios Sakkas & Charles Sutcliffe, 2017. "Harmful Diversification: Evidence from Alternative Investments," ICMA Centre Discussion Papers in Finance icma-dp2017-09, Henley Business School, Reading University.
  • Handle: RePEc:rdg:icmadp:icma-dp2017-09
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/assets.henley.ac.uk/defaultUploads/PDFs/research/papers-publications/ICM-2017-09-Platanakis-et-al.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Kenneth R. French, 2008. "Presidential Address: The Cost of Active Investing," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(4), pages 1537-1573, August.
    2. Ledoit, Olivier & Wolf, Michael, 2004. "A well-conditioned estimator for large-dimensional covariance matrices," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 88(2), pages 365-411, February.
    3. Getmansky, Mila & Lo, Andrew W. & Makarov, Igor, 2004. "An econometric model of serial correlation and illiquidity in hedge fund returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(3), pages 529-609, December.
    4. Levy, Haim & Simaan, Yusif, 2016. "More possessions, more worry," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 255(3), pages 893-902.
    5. Timotheos Angelidis & Nikolaos Tessaromatis, 2014. "Global portfolio management under state dependent multiple risk premia," Proceedings of Economics and Finance Conferences 0400966, International Institute of Social and Economic Sciences.
    6. Jorion, Philippe, 1986. "Bayes-Stein Estimation for Portfolio Analysis," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 21(03), pages 279-292, September.
    7. Ivo Welch & Amit Goyal, 2008. "A Comprehensive Look at The Empirical Performance of Equity Premium Prediction," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 21(4), pages 1455-1508, July.
    8. Tu, Jun & Zhou, Guofu, 2011. "Markowitz meets Talmud: A combination of sophisticated and naive diversification strategies," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(1), pages 204-215, January.
    9. Jens Carsten Jackwerth & Anna Slavutskaya, 2016. "The total benefit of alternative assets to pension fund portfolios," Working Paper Series of the Department of Economics, University of Konstanz 2016-06, Department of Economics, University of Konstanz.
    10. Edelman, Daniel & Fung, William & Hsieh, David A., 2013. "Exploring uncharted territories of the hedge fund Industry: Empirical characteristics of mega hedge fund firms," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(3), pages 734-758.
    11. Jacobs, Heiko & Müller, Sebastian & Weber, Martin, 2014. "How should individual investors diversify? An empirical evaluation of alternative asset allocation policies," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 19(C), pages 62-85.
    12. Harry Markowitz, 1952. "Portfolio Selection," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 7(1), pages 77-91, March.
    13. Andrew Ang & Allan Timmermann, 2012. "Regime Changes and Financial Markets," Annual Review of Financial Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 4(1), pages 313-337, October.
    14. Jun Tu, 2010. "Is Regime Switching in Stock Returns Important in Portfolio Decisions?," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 56(7), pages 1198-1215, July.
    15. Andrew Ang & Geert Bekaert, 2002. "International Asset Allocation With Regime Shifts," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 15(4), pages 1137-1187.
    16. Dhingra, Harbans L., 1983. "Estimation risk and stability of optimal portfolio composition," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 353-360, August.
    17. Bollen, Nicolas P. B. & Pool, Veronika K., 2008. "Conditional Return Smoothing in the Hedge Fund Industry," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 43(02), pages 267-298, June.
    18. John L. Evans & Stephen H. Archer, 1968. "Diversification And The Reduction Of Dispersion: An Empirical Analysis," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 23(5), pages 761-767, December.
    19. Rajkamal Iyer & José-Luis Peydró & Samuel da-Rocha-Lopes & Antoinette Schoar, 2014. "Interbank Liquidity Crunch and the Firm Credit Crunch: Evidence from the 2007--2009 Crisis," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 27(1), pages 347-372, January.
    20. Woodside-Oriakhi, M. & Lucas, C. & Beasley, J.E., 2013. "Portfolio rebalancing with an investment horizon and transaction costs," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 406-420.
    21. Victor DeMiguel & Lorenzo Garlappi & Raman Uppal, 2009. "Optimal Versus Naive Diversification: How Inefficient is the 1-N Portfolio Strategy?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(5), pages 1915-1953, May.
    22. Michaud, Richard O. & Michaud, Robert O., 2008. "Efficient Asset Management: A Practical Guide to Stock Portfolio Optimization and Asset Allocation," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, edition 2, number 9780195331912.
    23. repec:dau:papers:123456789/4688 is not listed on IDEAS
    24. Timmermann, Allan, 2000. "Moments of Markov switching models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 96(1), pages 75-111, May.
    25. Daniel L. Thornton & Giorgio Valente, 2012. "Out-of-Sample Predictions of Bond Excess Returns and Forward Rates: An Asset Allocation Perspective," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 25(10), pages 3141-3168.
    26. Ang, Andrew & Bekaert, Geert, 2002. "Short rate nonlinearities and regime switches," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 26(7-8), pages 1243-1274, July.
    27. Louis Eeckhoudt & Harris Schlesinger, 2006. "Putting Risk in Its Proper Place," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(1), pages 280-289, March.
    28. Kolm, Petter N. & Tütüncü, Reha & Fabozzi, Frank J., 2014. "60 Years of portfolio optimization: Practical challenges and current trends," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 234(2), pages 356-371.
    29. Eric Jondeau & Michael Rockinger, 2006. "Optimal Portfolio Allocation under Higher Moments," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 12(1), pages 29-55, January.
    30. Geltner, David Michael, 1991. "Smoothing in Appraisal-Based Returns," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 4(3), pages 327-345, September.
    31. Gary Gorton, 2009. "Information, Liquidity, and the (Ongoing) Panic of 2007," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(2), pages 567-572, May.
    32. Barry, Christopher B, 1974. "Portfolio Analysis under Uncertain Means, Variances, and Covariances," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 29(2), pages 515-522, May.
    33. Nicolas P.B. Bollen & Veronika K. Pool, 2009. "Do Hedge Fund Managers Misreport Returns? Evidence from the Pooled Distribution," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 64(5), pages 2257-2288, October.
    34. Gavin Cassar & Joseph Gerakos, 2011. "Hedge Funds: Pricing Controls and the Smoothing of Self-reported Returns," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 24(5), pages 1698-1734.
    35. J. G. Kallberg & W. T. Ziemba, 1983. "Comparison of Alternative Utility Functions in Portfolio Selection Problems," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 29(11), pages 1257-1276, November.
    36. Tu, Jun & Zhou, Guofu, 2004. "Data-generating process uncertainty: What difference does it make in portfolio decisions?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(2), pages 385-421, May.
    37. Maillet, Bertrand & Tokpavi, Sessi & Vaucher, Benoit, 2015. "Global minimum variance portfolio optimisation under some model risk: A robust regression-based approach," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 244(1), pages 289-299.
    38. J. Sa‐Aadu & James Shilling & Ashish Tiwari, 2010. "On the Portfolio Properties of Real Estate in Good Times and Bad Times1," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 38(3), pages 529-565, September.
    39. Soosung Hwang & Pa Mitchell & Soosung Hwang & Paul Mitchell, 2007. "Will Private Equity and Hedge Funds Replace Real Estate in Mixed-Asset Portfolios?," ERES eres2007_154, European Real Estate Society (ERES).
    40. Amin, Gaurav S. & Kat, Harry M., 2003. "Hedge Fund Performance 1990–2000: Do the “Money Machines” Really Add Value?," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 38(02), pages 251-274, June.
    41. Carl Ackermann & Richard McEnally & David Ravenscraft, 1999. "The Performance of Hedge Funds: Risk, Return, and Incentives," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(3), pages 833-874, June.
    42. Posthuma, Nolke & Sluis, Pieter Jelle van der, 2003. "A Reality Check on Hedge Funds Returns," Serie Research Memoranda 0017, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.
    43. Mohamed Arouri & Duc Khuong Nguyen & Kuntara Pukthuanthong, 2014. "Diversification benefits and strategic portfolio allocation across asset classes: The case of the US markets," Working Papers 2014-294, Department of Research, Ipag Business School.
    44. Thomas Dohmen & Armin Falk & David Huffman & Uwe Sunde & Juergen Schupp & Gert Wagner, 2005. "Individual Risk Attitudes: New Evidence from a Large, Representative, Experimentally-Validated Survey," Working Papers 2096, The Field Experiments Website.
    45. Breusch, T S & Pagan, A R, 1979. "A Simple Test for Heteroscedasticity and Random Coefficient Variation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(5), pages 1287-1294, September.
    46. Kim, Chang-Jin, 1994. "Dynamic linear models with Markov-switching," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1-2), pages 1-22.
    47. Cumming, Douglas & Helge Haß, Lars & Schweizer, Denis, 2013. "Private equity benchmarks and portfolio optimization," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(9), pages 3515-3528.
    48. repec:taf:eurjfi:v:23:y:2017:i:1:p:1-30 is not listed on IDEAS
    49. Hoevenaars, Roy P.M.M. & Molenaar, Roderick D.J. & Schotman, Peter C. & Steenkamp, Tom B.M., 2008. "Strategic asset allocation with liabilities: Beyond stocks and bonds," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 32(9), pages 2939-2970, September.
    50. repec:eee:beexfi:v:9:y:2016:i:c:p:63-80 is not listed on IDEAS
    51. Guidolin, Massimo & Timmermann, Allan, 2007. "Asset allocation under multivariate regime switching," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 31(11), pages 3503-3544, November.
    52. Chan, Kam Fong & Treepongkaruna, Sirimon & Brooks, Robert & Gray, Stephen, 2011. "Asset market linkages: Evidence from financial, commodity and real estate assets," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 1415-1426, June.
    53. Kan, Raymond & Zhou, Guofu, 2007. "Optimal Portfolio Choice with Parameter Uncertainty," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 42(03), pages 621-656, September.
    54. Vikas Agarwal & Vyacheslav Fos & Wei Jiang, 2013. "Inferring Reporting-Related Biases in Hedge Fund Databases from Hedge Fund Equity Holdings," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 59(6), pages 1271-1289, June.
    55. Loistl, Otto, 1976. "The Erroneous Approximation of Expected Utility by Means of a Taylor's Series Expansion: Analytic and Computational Results," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 66(5), pages 904-910, December.
    56. Jing-zhi Huang & Zhaodong Zhong, 2013. "Time Variation in Diversification Benefits of Commodity, REITs, and TIPS," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 46(1), pages 152-192, January.
    57. Myer, F C Neil & Webb, James R, 1994. "Statistical Properties of Returns: Financial Assets versus Commercial Real Estate," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 8(3), pages 267-282, May.
    58. Jackwerth, Jens Carsten & Slavutskaya, Anna, 2016. "The total benefit of alternative assets to pension fund portfolios," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 25-42.
    59. David M. Geltner, 1993. "Estimating Market Values from Appraised Values without Assuming an Efficient Market," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 8(3), pages 325-346.
    60. Bart Diris & Franz Palm & Peter Schotman, 2015. "Long-Term Strategic Asset Allocation: An Out-of-Sample Evaluation," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 61(9), pages 2185-2202, September.
    61. repec:arz:wpaper:eres2007-154 is not listed on IDEAS
    62. Bessler, Wolfgang & Wolff, Dominik, 2015. "Do commodities add value in multi-asset portfolios? An out-of-sample analysis for different investment strategies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 1-20.
    63. Clare, Andrew & Seaton, James & Smith, Peter N. & Thomas, Stephen, 2016. "The trend is our friend: Risk parity, momentum and trend following in global asset allocation," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance, Elsevier, vol. 9(C), pages 63-80.
    64. repec:taf:eurjfi:v:23:y:2017:i:4:p:324-352 is not listed on IDEAS
    65. Scott, Robert C & Horvath, Philip A, 1980. " On the Direction of Preference for Moments of Higher Order Than the Variance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 35(4), pages 915-919, September.
    66. Bossaerts, Peter & Hillion, Pierre, 1999. "Implementing Statistical Criteria to Select Return Forecasting Models: What Do We Learn?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 12(2), pages 405-428.
    67. Jakša Cvitanić & Vassilis Polimenis & Fernando Zapatero, 2008. "Optimal portfolio allocation with higher moments," Annals of Finance, Springer, vol. 4(1), pages 1-28, January.
    68. Daskalaki, Charoula & Skiadopoulos, George, 2011. "Should investors include commodities in their portfolios after all? New evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 2606-2626, October.
    69. Ang, Andrew & Bekaert, Geert, 2002. "Regime Switches in Interest Rates," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(2), pages 163-182, April.
    70. repec:dau:papers:123456789/14735 is not listed on IDEAS
    71. Amy K. Edwards & Lawrence E. Harris & Michael S. Piwowar, 2007. "Corporate Bond Market Transaction Costs and Transparency," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(3), pages 1421-1451, June.
    72. Bengtsson, Christoffer, 2003. "The Impact of Estimation Error on Portfolio Selection for Investors with Constant Relative Risk Aversion," Working Papers 2003:17, Lund University, Department of Economics, revised 29 Apr 2004.
    73. Vikas Agarwal & Naveen D. Daniel & Narayan Y. Naik, 2011. "Do Hedge Funds Manage Their Reported Returns?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 24(10), pages 3281-3320.
    74. Belousova, Julia & Dorfleitner, Gregor, 2012. "On the diversification benefits of commodities from the perspective of euro investors," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(9), pages 2455-2472.
    75. Stefano Benati, 2015. "Using medians in portfolio optimization," Journal of the Operational Research Society, Palgrave Macmillan;The OR Society, vol. 66(5), pages 720-731, May.
    76. Bae, Geum Il & Kim, Woo Chang & Mulvey, John M., 2014. "Dynamic asset allocation for varied financial markets under regime switching framework," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 234(2), pages 450-458.
    77. Agarwal, Vikas & Mullally, Kevin A. & Naik, Narayan Y., 2015. "The Economics and Finance of Hedge Funds: A Review of the Academic Literature," Foundations and Trends(R) in Finance, now publishers, vol. 10(1), pages 1-111, December.
    78. Engle, Robert, 2002. "Dynamic Conditional Correlation: A Simple Class of Multivariate Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity Models," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(3), pages 339-350, July.
    79. Apostolos Kourtis, 2015. "A Stability Approach to Mean-Variance Optimization," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 50(3), pages 301-330, August.
    80. Levy, Moshe & Kaplanski, Guy, 2015. "Portfolio selection in a two-regime world," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 242(2), pages 514-524.
    81. Egozcue, Martín & García, Luis Fuentes & Wong, Wing-Keung & Zitikis, Ricardas, 2011. "Do investors like to diversify? A study of Markowitz preferences," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 215(1), pages 188-193, November.
    82. Kirby, Chris & Ostdiek, Barbara, 2012. "It’s All in the Timing: Simple Active Portfolio Strategies that Outperform Naïve Diversification," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 47(02), pages 437-467, June.
    83. repec:bla:eufman:v:20:y:2014:i:3:p:521-547 is not listed on IDEAS
    84. Fung, William & Hsieh, David A., 2000. "Performance Characteristics of Hedge Funds and Commodity Funds: Natural vs. Spurious Biases," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 35(03), pages 291-307, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:ecolet:v:171:y:2018:i:c:p:93-96 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    portfolio theory; alternative assets; diversification; estimation errors; transactions costs; nonnormality; regimes; credit crisis;

    JEL classification:

    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:rdg:icmadp:icma-dp2017-09. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Marie Pearson). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/bsrdguk.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.