IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/bfr/banfra/108.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Optimal Portfolio Allocation Under Higher Moments

Author

Listed:
  • Jondeau, E.
  • Rockinger, M.

Abstract

We evaluate how departure from normality may affect the allocation of assets. A Taylor series expansion of the expected utility allows to focus on certain moments and to compute numerically the optimal portfolio allocation. A decisive advantage of this approach is that it remains operational even if a large number of assets is involved. We show that under moderate non-normality the mean-variance criterion provides a good approximation of the expected utility maximization. In contrast, under large departure from normality (as found in some stocks in mature markets or in some stock indices in emerging markets), the mean-variance criterion may fail to approximate the expected utility correctly. In such cases, the three-moment or four-moment optimization strategies may provide a good approximation of the expected utility.

Suggested Citation

  • Jondeau, E. & Rockinger, M., 2004. "Optimal Portfolio Allocation Under Higher Moments," Working papers 108, Banque de France.
  • Handle: RePEc:bfr:banfra:108
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://publications.banque-france.fr/sites/default/files/medias/documents/working-paper_108_2004.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Sun, Qian & Yan, Yuxing, 2003. "Skewness persistence with optimal portfolio selection," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 1111-1121, June.
    2. Kon, Stanley J, 1984. "Models of Stock Returns-A Comparison," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(1), pages 147-165, March.
    3. Jondeau, Eric & Rockinger, Michael, 2003. "Testing for differences in the tails of stock-market returns," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(5), pages 559-581, December.
    4. Chunhachinda, Pornchai & Dandapani, Krishnan & Hamid, Shahid & Prakash, Arun J., 1997. "Portfolio selection and skewness: Evidence from international stock markets," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 143-167, February.
    5. Hwang, Soosung & Satchell, Stephen E, 1999. "Modelling Emerging Market Risk Premia Using Higher Moments," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 4(4), pages 271-296, October.
    6. John Y. Campbell & Luis M. Viceira, 1999. "Consumption and Portfolio Decisions when Expected Returns are Time Varying," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 114(2), pages 433-495.
    7. Hansen, Bruce E, 1994. "Autoregressive Conditional Density Estimation," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 35(3), pages 705-730, August.
    8. Bertrand Maillet & Emmanuel Jurczenko, 2002. "The 3-CAPM: Theoretical Foundations and a Comparison of Asset Pricing Models in an Unified Framework," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) hal-00308997, HAL.
    9. Andrew Ang & Geert Bekaert, 2002. "International Asset Allocation With Regime Shifts," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 15(4), pages 1137-1187.
    10. Raymond Kan & Guofu Zhou, 1999. "A Critique of the Stochastic Discount Factor Methodology," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(4), pages 1221-1248, August.
    11. Tauchen, George & Hussey, Robert, 1991. "Quadrature-Based Methods for Obtaining Approximate Solutions to Nonlinear Asset Pricing Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(2), pages 371-396, March.
    12. Loretan, Mico & Phillips, Peter C. B., 1994. "Testing the covariance stationarity of heavy-tailed time series: An overview of the theory with applications to several financial datasets," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 1(2), pages 211-248, January.
    13. Hlawitschka, Walter, 1994. "The Empirical Nature of Taylor-Series Approximations to Expected Utility," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(3), pages 713-719, June.
    14. Tsiang, S C, 1972. "The Rationale of the Mean-Standard Deviation Analysis, Skewness Preference, and the Demand for Money," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 62(3), pages 354-371, June.
    15. N. J. H. Small, 1980. "Marginal Skewness and Kurtosis in Testing Multivariate Normality," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series C, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 29(1), pages 85-87, March.
    16. Fred D. Arditti, 1967. "Risk And The Required Return On Equity," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 22(1), pages 19-36, March.
    17. Rubinstein, Mark E., 1973. "The Fundamental Theorem of Parameter-Preference Security Valuation," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 8(1), pages 61-69, January.
    18. Michael W. Brandt & Francis X. Diebold, 2006. "A No-Arbitrage Approach to Range-Based Estimation of Return Covariances and Correlations," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(1), pages 61-74, January.
    19. Longin, Francois M, 1996. "The Asymptotic Distribution of Extreme Stock Market Returns," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 69(3), pages 383-408, July.
    20. Harvey, Campbell R, 1995. "Predictable Risk and Returns in Emerging Markets," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 8(3), pages 773-816.
    21. Lee, John H H & King, Maxwell L, 1993. "A Locally Most Mean Powerful Based Score Test for ARCH and GARCH Regression Disturbances," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 11(1), pages 17-27, January.
    22. Pulley, Lawrence B., 1981. "A General Mean-Variance Approximation to Expected Utility for Short Holding Periods," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 16(3), pages 361-373, September.
    23. Barone-Adesi, Giovanni, 1985. "Arbitrage Equilibrium with Skewed Asset Returns," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(3), pages 299-313, September.
    24. Peiro, Amado, 1999. "Skewness in financial returns," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 847-862, June.
    25. Luc Bauwens & Sébastien Laurent, 2002. "A New Class of Multivariate skew Densities, with Application to GARCH Models," Computing in Economics and Finance 2002 5, Society for Computational Economics.
    26. Blattberg, Robert C & Gonedes, Nicholas J, 1974. "A Comparison of the Stable and Student Distributions as Statistical Models for Stock Prices," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 47(2), pages 244-280, April.
    27. Kandel, Shmuel & Stambaugh, Robert F, 1996. "On the Predictability of Stock Returns: An Asset-Allocation Perspective," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(2), pages 385-424, June.
    28. Jondeau, Eric & Rockinger, Michael, 2003. "Conditional volatility, skewness, and kurtosis: existence, persistence, and comovements," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 27(10), pages 1699-1737, August.
    29. Yacine AÏT‐SAHALI & Michael W. Brandt, 2001. "Variable Selection for Portfolio Choice," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(4), pages 1297-1351, August.
    30. Jurgen A. Doornik & Henrik Hansen, 2008. "An Omnibus Test for Univariate and Multivariate Normality," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 70(s1), pages 927-939, December.
    31. Yusif Simaan, 1993. "Portfolio Selection and Asset Pricing---Three-Parameter Framework," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 39(5), pages 568-577, May.
    32. Loistl, Otto, 1976. "The Erroneous Approximation of Expected Utility by Means of a Taylor's Series Expansion: Analytic and Computational Results," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 66(5), pages 904-910, December.
    33. Sears, R Stephen & Wei, K C John, 1985. "Asset Pricing, Higher Moments, and the Market Risk Premium: A Note," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 40(4), pages 1251-1253, September.
    34. Bekaert, Geert & Harvey, Campbell R., 1997. "Emerging equity market volatility," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 29-77, January.
    35. Harvey, Campbell R. & Siddique, Akhtar, 1999. "Autoregressive Conditional Skewness," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 34(4), pages 465-487, December.
    36. Ramchand, Latha & Susmel, Raul, 1998. "Volatility and cross correlation across major stock markets," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 5(4), pages 397-416, October.
    37. Simkowitz, Michael A. & Beedles, William L., 1978. "Diversification in a Three-Moment World," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 13(5), pages 927-941, December.
    38. Levy, Haim, 1969. "A Utility Function Depending on the First Three Moments: Comment," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 24(4), pages 715-719, September.
    39. Singleton, J. Clay & Wingender, John, 1986. "Skewness Persistence in Common Stock Returns," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 21(3), pages 335-341, September.
    40. Jarque, Carlos M. & Bera, Anil K., 1980. "Efficient tests for normality, homoscedasticity and serial independence of regression residuals," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 255-259.
    41. Benoit Mandelbrot, 2015. "The Variation of Certain Speculative Prices," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Anastasios G Malliaris & William T Ziemba (ed.), THE WORLD SCIENTIFIC HANDBOOK OF FUTURES MARKETS, chapter 3, pages 39-78, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    42. Arditti, Fred D, 1969. "A Utility Function Depending on the First Three Moments: Reply," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 24(4), pages 720-720, September.
    43. Scott, Robert C & Horvath, Philip A, 1980. "On the Direction of Preference for Moments of Higher Order Than the Variance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 35(4), pages 915-919, September.
    44. Paul A. Samuelson, 1970. "The Fundamental Approximation Theorem of Portfolio Analysis in terms of Means, Variances and Higher Moments," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 37(4), pages 537-542.
    45. Kroll, Yoram & Levy, Haim & Markowitz, Harry M, 1984. "Mean-Variance versus Direct Utility Maximization," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(1), pages 47-61, March.
    46. Eugene F. Fama, 1963. "Mandelbrot and the Stable Paretian Hypothesis," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 36, pages 420-420.
    47. Levy, H & Markowtiz, H M, 1979. "Approximating Expected Utility by a Function of Mean and Variance," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(3), pages 308-317, June.
    48. Campbell R. Harvey & Akhtar Siddique, 2000. "Conditional Skewness in Asset Pricing Tests," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(3), pages 1263-1295, June.
    49. Kraus, Alan & Litzenberger, Robert H, 1976. "Skewness Preference and the Valuation of Risk Assets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 31(4), pages 1085-1100, September.
    50. Friend, Irwin & Westerfield, Randolph, 1980. "Co-Skewness and Capital Asset Pricing," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 35(4), pages 897-913, September.
    51. Sears, R Stephen & Wei, K C John, 1988. "The Structure of Skewness Preferences in Asset Pricing Models with Higher Moments: An Empirical Test," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 23(1), pages 25-38, February.
    52. Massimo Guidolin & Allan Timmerman, 2005. "Optimal portfolio choice under regime switching, skew and kurtosis preferences," Working Papers 2005-006, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
    53. Robert F. Dittmar, 2002. "Nonlinear Pricing Kernels, Kurtosis Preference, and Evidence from the Cross Section of Equity Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(1), pages 369-403, February.
    54. Jean, William H., 1971. "The Extension of Portfolio Analysis to Three or More Parameters," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 6(1), pages 505-515, January.
    55. Hanoch, Giora & Levy, Haim, 1970. "Efficient Portfolio Selection with Quadratic and Cubic Utility," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 43(2), pages 181-189, April.
    56. Patrick L. Brockett & James R. Garven, 1998. "A Reexamination of the Relationship Between Preferences and Moment Orderings by Rational Risk-Averse Investors," The Geneva Risk and Insurance Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Association for the Study of Insurance Economics (The Geneva Association), vol. 23(2), pages 127-137, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Eric Jondeau & Michael Rockinger, 2005. "Conditional Asset Allocation under Non-Normality: How Costly is the Mean-Variance Criterion?," FAME Research Paper Series rp132, International Center for Financial Asset Management and Engineering.
    2. Chiao, Chaoshin & Hung, Ken & Srivastava, Suresh C., 2003. "Taiwan stock market and four-moment asset pricing model," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 355-381, October.
    3. Emmanuel Jurczenko & Bertrand Maillet & Paul Merlin, 2008. "Efficient Frontier for Robust Higher-order Moment Portfolio Selection," Post-Print halshs-00336475, HAL.
    4. Jondeau, Eric & Rockinger, Michael, 2003. "Conditional volatility, skewness, and kurtosis: existence, persistence, and comovements," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 27(10), pages 1699-1737, August.
    5. Michael Rockinger & Eric Jondeau, 2000. "Conditional Volatility, Skewness, and Kurtosis: Existence and Persistence," Working Papers hal-00601486, HAL.
    6. Tamara Teplova & Evgeniya Shutova, 2011. "A Higher Moment Downside Framework for Conditional and Unconditional Capm in the Russian Stock Market," Eurasian Economic Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 1(2), pages 157-178, December.
    7. Lambert, M. & Hübner, G., 2013. "Comoment risk and stock returns," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(C), pages 191-205.
    8. Attiya Y. Javid & Eatzaz Ahmad, 2008. "Test of Multi-moment Capital Asset Pricing Model: Evidence from Karachi Stock Exchange," PIDE-Working Papers 2008:49, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
    9. I-Hsuan Ethan Chiang, 2016. "Skewness And Coskewness In Bond Returns," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 39(2), pages 145-178, June.
    10. Dheeraj Misra & Sushma Vishnani & Ankit Mehrotra, 2019. "Four-moment CAPM Model: Evidence from the Indian Stock Market," Journal of Emerging Market Finance, Institute for Financial Management and Research, vol. 18(1_suppl), pages 137-166, April.
    11. Alexander Eastman & Brian Lucey, 2008. "Skewness and asymmetry in futures returns and volumes," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(10), pages 777-800.
    12. Bernardi, Mauro & Catania, Leopoldo, 2018. "Portfolio optimisation under flexible dynamic dependence modelling," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 1-18.
    13. Monica Billio & Bertrand Maillet & Loriana Pelizzon, 2022. "A meta-measure of performance related to both investors and investments characteristics," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 313(2), pages 1405-1447, June.
    14. Chunhachinda, Pornchai & Dandapani, Krishnan & Hamid, Shahid & Prakash, Arun J., 1997. "Portfolio selection and skewness: Evidence from international stock markets," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 143-167, February.
    15. Juliane Proelss & Denis Schweizer, 2014. "Polynomial goal programming and the implicit higher moment preferences of US institutional investors in hedge funds," Financial Markets and Portfolio Management, Springer;Swiss Society for Financial Market Research, vol. 28(1), pages 1-28, February.
    16. Canela, Miguel Angel & Collazo, Eduardo Pedreira, 2007. "Portfolio selection with skewness in emerging market industries," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 230-250, September.
    17. Luca Riccetti, 2013. "A copula–GARCH model for macro asset allocation of a portfolio with commodities," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 44(3), pages 1315-1336, June.
    18. M. Glawischnig & I. Seidl, 2013. "Portfolio optimization with serially correlated, skewed and fat tailed index returns," Central European Journal of Operations Research, Springer;Slovak Society for Operations Research;Hungarian Operational Research Society;Czech Society for Operations Research;Österr. Gesellschaft für Operations Research (ÖGOR);Slovenian Society Informatika - Section for Operational Research;Croatian Operational Research Society, vol. 21(1), pages 153-176, January.
    19. Hollstein, Fabian & Nguyen, Duc Binh Benno & Prokopczuk, Marcel, 2019. "Asset prices and “the devil(s) you know”," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 20-35.
    20. Sévi, Benoît, 2013. "An empirical analysis of the downside risk-return trade-off at daily frequency," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 189-197.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Asset allocation ; Stock returns ; Non-normality ; Utility function;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • C51 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Model Construction and Estimation
    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bfr:banfra:108. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/bdfgvfr.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Michael brassart (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/bdfgvfr.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.