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Do Hedge Funds Manage Their Reported Returns?

Author

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  • Vikas Agarwal
  • Naveen D. Daniel
  • Narayan Y. Naik

Abstract

For funds with high incentives and more opportunities to inflate returns, we find that (i) returns during December are significantly higher than returns during the rest of the year, even after controlling for risk in both the time series and the cross-section; and (ii) this December spike is greater than for funds with lower incentives and fewer opportunities to inflate returns. These results suggest that hedge funds manage their returns upward in an opportunistic fashion in order to earn higher fees. Finally, we find strong evidence that funds inflate December returns by underreporting returns earlier in the year but only weak evidence that funds borrow from January returns in the following year. The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Society for Financial Studies. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com., Oxford University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Vikas Agarwal & Naveen D. Daniel & Narayan Y. Naik, 2011. "Do Hedge Funds Manage Their Reported Returns?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 24(10), pages 3281-3320.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:rfinst:v:24:y:2011:i:10:p:3281-3320
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Agarwal, Vikas & Gay, Gerald D. & Ling, Leng, 2012. "Performance inconsistency in mutual funds: An investigation of window-dressing behavior," CFR Working Papers 11-07 [rev.], University of Cologne, Centre for Financial Research (CFR).
    2. repec:spr:reaccs:v:22:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s11142-017-9403-5 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Lan, Yingcong & Wang, Neng & Yang, Jinqiang, 2013. "The economics of hedge funds," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 110(2), pages 300-323.
    4. Eid, Nourhan & Maltby, Josephine & Talavera, Oleksandr, 2016. "Income Rounding and Loan Performance in the Peer-to-Peer Market," MPRA Paper 72852, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Agarwal, Vikas & Gay, Gerald D. & Ling, Leng, 2013. "Window dressing in mutual funds," CFR Working Papers 11-07 [rev.2], University of Cologne, Centre for Financial Research (CFR).
    6. Andrew J. Patton & Tarun Ramadorai, 2013. "On the High-Frequency Dynamics of Hedge Fund Risk Exposures," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 68(2), pages 597-635, April.
    7. Itzhak Ben-David & Francesco Franzoni & Augustin Landier & Rabih Moussawi, 2013. "Do Hedge Funds Manipulate Stock Prices?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 68(6), pages 2383-2434, December.
    8. Edward B. Smith & Heewon Chae, 2016. "“We do what we must, and call it by the best names”: Can deliberate names offset the consequences of organizational atypicality?," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 37(6), pages 1021-1033, June.
    9. Aiken, Adam L. & Clifford, Christopher P. & Ellis, Jesse A., 2015. "Hedge funds and discretionary liquidity restrictions," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 116(1), pages 197-218.
    10. Ben Ammar, Semir & Braun, Alexander & Eling, Martin, 2016. "Asset Pricing and Extreme Event Risk: Common Factors in ILS Fund Returns," Working Papers on Finance 1621, University of St. Gallen, School of Finance.
    11. Cici, Gjergji & Kempf, Alexander & Pütz, Alexander, 2011. "The valuation of hedge funds' equity positions," CFR Working Papers 10-15 [rev.], University of Cologne, Centre for Financial Research (CFR).
    12. Mathias S. Kruttli & Andrew J. Patton & Tarun Ramadorai, 2015. "The Impact of Hedge Funds on Asset Markets," Review of Asset Pricing Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 5(2), pages 185-226.
    13. Andrew J. Patton & Tarun Ramadorai & Michael Streatfield, 2015. "Change You Can Believe In? Hedge Fund Data Revisions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 70(3), pages 963-999, June.
    14. Jiao, Yawen & Massa, Massimo & Zhang, Hong, 2016. "Short selling meets hedge fund 13F: An anatomy of informed demand," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 122(3), pages 544-567.
    15. Brown, Stephen & Goetzmann, William & Liang, Bing & Schwarz, Christopher, 2012. "Trust and delegation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 103(2), pages 221-234.
    16. Agarwal, Vikas & Gay, Gerald D. & Ling, Leng, 2014. "Window dressing in mutual funds," CFR Working Papers 11-07 [rev.3], University of Cologne, Centre for Financial Research (CFR).
    17. Benoît Dewaele, 2013. "Leverage and Alpha: The Case of Funds of Hedge Funds," Working Papers CEB 13-033, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    18. Mila Getmansky & Peter A. Lee & Andrew W. Lo, 2015. "Hedge Funds: A Dynamic Industry In Transition," NBER Working Papers 21449, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    19. Jiao, Yawen & Massa, Massimo & Zhang, Hong, 2015. "Short Selling Meets Hedge Fund 13F: An Anatomy of Informed Demand," CEPR Discussion Papers 10471, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    20. Serge Darolles & Christian Gouriéroux, 2013. "The Effects of Management and Provision Accounts on Hedge Fund Returns - Part I : The High Water Mark Scheme," Working Papers 2013-22, Center for Research in Economics and Statistics.
    21. repec:eee:jbfina:v:82:y:2017:i:c:p:133-150 is not listed on IDEAS
    22. Benoît Dewaele, 2013. "Portfolio Optimization for Hedge Funds through Time-Varying Coefficients," Working Papers CEB 13-032, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    23. El Kalak, Izidin & Azevedo, Alcino & Hudson, Robert, 2016. "Reviewing the hedge funds literature II: Hedge funds' returns and risk management characteristics," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 55-66.
    24. Jorion, Philippe & Schwarz, Christopher, 2014. "Are hedge fund managers systematically misreporting? Or not?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 111(2), pages 311-327.
    25. repec:bla:irvfin:v:17:y:2017:i:3:p:427-450 is not listed on IDEAS

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