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Thirty Years of Heteroskedasticity-Robust Inference

  • James G. MacKinnon

    ()

    (Queen's University)

White (1980) marked the beginning of a new era for inference in econometrics. It introduced the revolutionary idea of inference that is robust to heteroskedasticity of unknown form, an idea that was very soon extended to other forms of robust inference and also led to many new estimation methods. This paper discusses the development of heteroskedasticity-robust inference since 1980. There have been two principal lines of investigation. One approach has been to modify White's original estimator to improve its finite-sample properties, and the other has been to use bootstrap methods. The relation between these two approaches, and some ways in which they may be combined, are discussed. Finally, a simulation experiment compares various methods and shows how far heteroskedasticity-robust inference has come in just over thirty years.

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File URL: http://qed.econ.queensu.ca/working_papers/papers/qed_wp_1268.pdf
File Function: Second version 2012
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Paper provided by Queen's University, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 1268.

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Length: 28 pages
Date of creation: Apr 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:qed:wpaper:1268
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  1. White, Halbert, 1982. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Misspecified Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(1), pages 1-25, January.
  2. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-38, May.
  3. Tsung-Wu Ho, 2001. "Finite-sample properties of the bootstrap estimator in a Markov-switching model," Journal of Applied Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(7), pages 835-842.
  4. Whitney K. Newey & Kenneth D. West, 1986. "A Simple, Positive Semi-Definite, Heteroskedasticity and AutocorrelationConsistent Covariance Matrix," NBER Technical Working Papers 0055, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Flachaire, Emmanuel, 1999. "A better way to bootstrap pairs," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 64(3), pages 257-262, September.
  6. Davidson, Russell & MacKinnon, James G., 2006. "The power of bootstrap and asymptotic tests," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 133(2), pages 421-441, August.
  7. Donald W.K. Andrews & Christopher J. Monahan, 1990. "An Improved Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelation Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 942, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  8. Emmanuel Flachaire, 2005. "Bootstrapping heteroskedastic regression models: wild bootstrap vs. pairs bootstrap," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00175910, HAL.
  9. Paparoditis, Efstathios & Politis, Dimitris N., 2005. "Bootstrap hypothesis testing in regression models," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 74(4), pages 356-365, October.
  10. Davidson, Russell & MacKinnon, James G., 1999. "The Size Distortion Of Bootstrap Tests," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 15(03), pages 361-376, June.
  11. Hansen, Lars Peter, 1982. "Large Sample Properties of Generalized Method of Moments Estimators," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 1029-54, July.
  12. Andrews, Donald W K, 1991. "Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelation Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(3), pages 817-58, May.
  13. Russell Davidson & James G. MacKinnon, 2007. "Wild Bootstrap Tests For Iv Regression," Departmental Working Papers 2007-14, McGill University, Department of Economics.
  14. Jeff Racine & James G. MacKinnon, 2004. "Simulation-based Tests that Can Use Any Number of Simulations," Working Papers 1027, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
  15. repec:att:wimass:9220 is not listed on IDEAS
  16. Horowitz, Joel L., 2001. "The Bootstrap," Handbook of Econometrics, in: J.J. Heckman & E.E. Leamer (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 5, chapter 52, pages 3159-3228 Elsevier.
  17. James G. MacKinnon, 2002. "Bootstrap inference in econometrics," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 35(4), pages 615-645, November.
  18. MacKinnon, James G. & White, Halbert, 1985. "Some heteroskedasticity-consistent covariance matrix estimators with improved finite sample properties," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 305-325, September.
  19. Horowitz, Joel L., 2001. "The bootstrap and hypothesis tests in econometrics," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 100(1), pages 37-40, January.
  20. White, Halbert & Domowitz, Ian, 1984. "Nonlinear Regression with Dependent Observations," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(1), pages 143-61, January.
  21. Doug Miller & A. Colin Cameron & Jonah B. Gelbach, 2006. "Bootstrap-Based Improvements for Inference with Clustered Errors," Working Papers 621, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
  22. Francisco Cribari-Neto & Maria Lima, 2010. "Sequences of bias-adjusted covariance matrix estimators under heteroskedasticity of unknown form," Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Springer, vol. 62(6), pages 1053-1082, December.
  23. Newey, Whitney K & West, Kenneth D, 1994. "Automatic Lag Selection in Covariance Matrix Estimation," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 61(4), pages 631-53, October.
  24. Russell Davidson & James G. MacKinnon, 2014. "Confidence sets based on inverting Anderson–Rubin tests," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 17(2), pages S39-S58, 06.
  25. Chesher, Andrew & Austin, Gerard, 1991. "The finite-sample distributions of heteroskedasticity robust Wald statistics," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 153-173, January.
  26. John C. Driscoll & Aart C. Kraay, 1998. "Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimation With Spatially Dependent Panel Data," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(4), pages 549-560, November.
  27. Chesher, Andrew & Jewitt, Ian, 1987. "The Bias of a Heteroskedasticity Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(5), pages 1217-22, September.
  28. Froot, Kenneth A., 1989. "Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimation with Cross-Sectional Dependence and Heteroskedasticity in Financial Data," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 24(03), pages 333-355, September.
  29. Russell Davidson & James Mackinnon, 2009. "Wild bootstrap tests for IV regression," Working Papers halshs-00443550, HAL.
  30. Cribari-Neto, Francisco, 2004. "Asymptotic inference under heteroskedasticity of unknown form," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 215-233, March.
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