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Confidence Sets Based on Inverting Anderson-Rubin Tests


  • Russell Davidson

    () (McGill University)

  • James G. MacKinnon

    () (Queen's University)


Economists are often interested in the coefficient of a single endogenous explanatory variable in a linear simultaneous equations model. One way to obtain a confidence set for this coefficient is to invert the Anderson-Rubin test. The "AR confidence sets" that result have correct coverage under classical assumptions. However, AR confidence sets also have many undesirable properties. It is well known that they can be unbounded when the instruments are weak. But, even when they are bounded, their length may be very misleading, and their coverage conditional on quantities that the investigator can observe, notably the Sargan statistic for over-identifying restrictions, can be far from correct. A similar property manifests itself, for similar reasons, when a confidence set for a single parameter is based on inverting an F test for two or more parameters.

Suggested Citation

  • Russell Davidson & James G. MacKinnon, 2011. "Confidence Sets Based on Inverting Anderson-Rubin Tests," Working Papers 1257, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:qed:wpaper:1257

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Forchini, Giovanni & Hillier, Grant, 2003. "Conditional Inference For Possibly Unidentified Structural Equations," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 19(05), pages 707-743, October.
    2. Jean-Marie Dufour & Mohamed Taamouti, 2005. "Projection-Based Statistical Inference in Linear Structural Models with Possibly Weak Instruments," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 73(4), pages 1351-1365, July.
    3. Davidson, Russell & Flachaire, Emmanuel, 2008. "The wild bootstrap, tamed at last," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 146(1), pages 162-169, September.
    4. James H. Stock & Motohiro Yogo, 2002. "Testing for Weak Instruments in Linear IV Regression," NBER Technical Working Papers 0284, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Russell Davidson & James G. MacKinnon, 2008. "Bootstrap inference in a linear equation estimated by instrumental variables," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 11(3), pages 443-477, November.
    6. Douglas Staiger & James H. Stock, 1997. "Instrumental Variables Regression with Weak Instruments," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 65(3), pages 557-586, May.
    7. Stock, James H & Wright, Jonathan H & Yogo, Motohiro, 2002. "A Survey of Weak Instruments and Weak Identification in Generalized Method of Moments," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(4), pages 518-529, October.
    8. David C. Wyld, 2010. "ASecond Life for organizations?: managing in the new, virtual world," Management Research Review, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 33(6), pages 529-562, May.
    9. Jean-Marie Dufour, 1997. "Some Impossibility Theorems in Econometrics with Applications to Structural and Dynamic Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 65(6), pages 1365-1388, November.
    10. Davidson, Russell & MacKinnon, James G., 2010. "Wild Bootstrap Tests for IV Regression," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 28(1), pages 128-144.
    11. Frank Kleibergen, 2002. "Pivotal Statistics for Testing Structural Parameters in Instrumental Variables Regression," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 70(5), pages 1781-1803, September.
    12. Phillips, P.C.B., 1983. "Exact small sample theory in the simultaneous equations model," Handbook of Econometrics,in: Z. Griliches† & M. D. Intriligator (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 8, pages 449-516 Elsevier.
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    Cited by:

    1. James G. MacKinnon, 2012. "Thirty Years of Heteroskedasticity-Robust Inference," Working Papers 1268, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
    2. Nakashima, Kiyotaka & Takahashi, Koji, 2016. "The Real Effects of Bank-Driven Termination of Relationships: Evidence from Loan-level Matched Data," MPRA Paper 70668, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Masakure, Oliver, 2016. "The effect of employee loyalty on wages," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 274-298.

    More about this item


    weak instruments; confidence interval; instrumental variables; LIML; Sargan test; F test; overidentifying restrictions;

    JEL classification:

    • C26 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation
    • C36 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation
    • C15 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Statistical Simulation Methods: General

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