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Jobs for the Heartland: Place-Based Policies in 21st Century America

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  • Benjamin A. Austin
  • Edward L. Glaeser
  • Lawrence H. Summers

Abstract

The economic convergence of American regions has greatly slowed, and rates of long-term non-employment have even been diverging. Simultaneously, the rate of non-employment for working age men has nearly tripled over the last 50 years, generating a terrible social problem that is disproportionately centered in the eastern parts of the American heartland. Should more permanent economic divisions across space lead American economists to rethink their traditional skepticism about place-based policies? We document that increases in labor demand appear to have greater impacts on employment in areas where not working has been historically high, suggesting that subsidizing employment in such places could particularly reduce the not working rate. Pro-employment policies, such as a ramped up Earned Income Tax Credit, that are targeted towards regions with more elastic employment responses, however financed, could plausibly reduce suffering and materially improve economic performance.

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  • Benjamin A. Austin & Edward L. Glaeser & Lawrence H. Summers, 2018. "Jobs for the Heartland: Place-Based Policies in 21st Century America," NBER Working Papers 24548, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:24548
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    1. Dauth, Wolfgang & Findeisen, Sebastian & Moretti, Enrico & Südekum, Jens, 2018. "Matching In Cities," CEPR Discussion Papers 13347, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.

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    JEL classification:

    • J01 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - General - - - Labor Economics: General
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • J38 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Public Policy
    • R12 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade (economic geography)
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population

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