IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/kap/regeco/v52y2017i2d10.1007_s11149-017-9333-y.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Analyzing occupational licensing among the states

Author

Listed:
  • Morris M. Kleiner

    (University of Minnesota, NBER
    Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis)

  • Evgeny Vorotnikov

    (Fannie Mae)

Abstract

The study provides new evidence of the influence of occupational regulations on the U.S. economy. Our analysis, unlike previous studies, was able to obtain a representative sample of the population at the state level, which allowed us to estimate the cross-sectional effects of occupational licensing for each state. The state-level analysis demonstrates considerable variation in percentage of the workforce that has attained a license, and unlike minimum wages or unionization, licensing shows no regional patterns in the distribution of occupational licensing. The analysis also shows considerable variation in the influence of licensing on earnings across the states. The national estimates suggest that occupational licensing raises wages by about 11% after controlling for human capital and other observable characteristics. Finally, our analysis shows the influence of occupational regulation on wage inequality across the income distribution.

Suggested Citation

  • Morris M. Kleiner & Evgeny Vorotnikov, 2017. "Analyzing occupational licensing among the states," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 52(2), pages 132-158, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:regeco:v:52:y:2017:i:2:d:10.1007_s11149-017-9333-y
    DOI: 10.1007/s11149-017-9333-y
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11149-017-9333-y
    File Function: Abstract
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1007/s11149-017-9333-y?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Morris M. Kleiner & Alan B. Krueger, 2010. "The Prevalence and Effects of Occupational Licensing," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 48(4), pages 676-687, December.
    2. Morris M. Kleiner & Alan B. Krueger, 2013. "Analyzing the Extent and Influence of Occupational Licensing on the Labor Market," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 31(S1), pages 173-202.
    3. Morris M. Kleiner & Allison Marier & Kyoung Won Park & Coady Wing, 2016. "Relaxing Occupational Licensing Requirements: Analyzing Wages and Prices for a Medical Service," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59(2), pages 261-291.
    4. Morris M. Kleiner, 2006. "Licensing Occupations: Ensuring Quality or Restricting Competition?," Books from Upjohn Press, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, number lo, january-j.
    5. Neal, Derek A & Johnson, William R, 1996. "The Role of Premarket Factors in Black-White Wage Differences," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(5), pages 869-895, October.
    6. Maury Gittleman & Morris M. Kleiner, 2016. "Wage Effects of Unionization and Occupational Licensing Coverage in the United States," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 69(1), pages 142-172, January.
    7. Carl Shapiro, 1986. "Investment, Moral Hazard, and Occupational Licensing," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 53(5), pages 843-862.
    8. Morris M. Kleiner, 2000. "Occupational Licensing," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(4), pages 189-202, Fall.
    9. Richard B. Freeman, 1982. "Union Wage Practices and Wage Dispersion within Establishments," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 36(1), pages 3-21, October.
    10. Michael Spence, 1973. "Job Market Signaling," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 87(3), pages 355-374.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Morikawa, Masayuki, 2018. "Occupational licenses and labor market outcomes in Japan," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 45-56.
    2. Trey Malone & Antonios M. Koumpias & Per L. Bylund, 2019. "Entrepreneurial response to interstate regulatory competition: evidence from a behavioral discrete choice experiment," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 55(2), pages 172-192, April.
    3. Mario Pagliero, 2019. "Occupational Licensing in the EU: Protecting Consumers or Limiting Competition?," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 55(1), pages 137-153, August.
    4. Tingting Zhang & Morley Gunderson, 2020. "Impact of Occupational Licensing on Wages and Wage Inequality: Canadian Evidence 1998–2018," Journal of Labor Research, Springer, vol. 41(4), pages 338-351, December.
    5. Koumenta, Maria & Pagliero, Mario & Rostam-Afschar, Davud, 2020. "Occupational Licensing and the Gender Wage Gap," GLO Discussion Paper Series 689, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
    6. Morris M. Kleiner & Ming Xu, 2020. "Occupational Licensing and Labor Market Fluidity," Staff Report 606, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
    7. Benjamin Austin & Edward Glaeser & Lawrence Summers, 2018. "Jobs for the Heartland: Place-Based Policies in 21st-Century America," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 49(1 (Spring), pages 151-255.
    8. Hew Dalrymple (pseud.?), 2018. "Information for the Hair Dressers in Edinburgh; Against the Incorporation of Barbers—The Second Edition," Econ Journal Watch, Econ Journal Watch, vol. 15(3), pages 382–396-3, September.
    9. Dick M. Carpenter & Lisa Knepper & Kyle Sweetland & Jennifer McDonald, 2018. "The Continuing Burden of Occupational Licensing in the United States," Economic Affairs, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(3), pages 380-405, October.
    10. Morris M. Kleiner & Ming Xu, 2020. "Occupational Licensing and Labor Market Fluidity," NBER Working Papers 27568, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Mario Pagliero, 2019. "Occupational Licensing in the EU: Protecting Consumers or Limiting Competition?," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 55(1), pages 137-153, August.
    2. Morikawa, Masayuki, 2018. "Occupational licenses and labor market outcomes in Japan," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 45-56.
    3. Edward J Timmons & Anna Mills, 2018. "Bringing the Effects of Occupational Licensing into Focus: Optician Licensing in the United States," Eastern Economic Journal, Palgrave Macmillan;Eastern Economic Association, vol. 44(1), pages 69-83, January.
    4. MORIKAWA Masayuki, 2017. "Occupational Licenses and Labor Market Outcomes," Discussion papers 17078, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    5. Wei Chi & Morris M. Kleiner & Xiaoye Qian, 2017. "Do Occupational Regulations Increase Earnings? Evidence from China," Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 56(2), pages 351-381, April.
    6. Pizzola, Brandon & Tabarrok, Alexander, 2017. "Occupational licensing causes a wage premium: Evidence from a natural experiment in Colorado’s funeral services industry," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 50-59.
    7. Tingting Zhang & Morley Gunderson, 2020. "Impact of Occupational Licensing on Wages and Wage Inequality: Canadian Evidence 1998–2018," Journal of Labor Research, Springer, vol. 41(4), pages 338-351, December.
    8. Pagliero, Mario, 2013. "The impact of potential labor supply on licensing exam difficulty," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 141-152.
    9. Morris M. Kleiner, 2017. "The influence of occupational licensing and regulation," IZA World of Labor, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA), pages 392-392, October.
    10. D. Mark Anderson & Ryan Brown & Kerwin Kofi Charles & Daniel I. Rees, 2016. "The Effect of Occupational Licensing on Consumer Welfare: Early Midwifery Laws and Maternal Mortality," NBER Working Papers 22456, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Maury Gittleman & Mark A. Klee & Morris M. Kleiner, 2018. "Analyzing the Labor Market Outcomes of Occupational Licensing," Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 57(1), pages 57-100, January.
    12. Gaetano Basso & Eleonora Brandimarti & Michele Pellizzari & Giovanni Pica, 2021. "Quality and Selection in Regulated Professions," Development Working Papers 467, Centro Studi Luca d'Agliano, University of Milano.
    13. Suyoun Han & Morris M. Kleiner, 2016. "Analyzing the Influence of Occupational Licensing Duration and Grandfathering on Labor Market Outcomes," NBER Working Papers 22810, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Suyoun Han & Morris M. Kleiner, 2017. "Analyzing the Influence of Occupational Licensing Duration and Grandfathering on Labor Market Outcomes," Staff Report 556, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
    15. John R. Bowblis & Austin C. Smith, 2021. "Occupational Licensing of Social Services and Nursing Home Quality: A Regression Discontinuity Approach," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 74(1), pages 199-223, January.
    16. Kaja Fredriksen, 2020. "Does occupational licensing impact incomes? A replication study for the German crafts case," Journal for Labour Market Research, Springer;Institute for Employment Research/ Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), vol. 54(1), pages 1-17, December.
    17. Petrik Runst, 2018. "The effect of occupational licensing deregulation on migrants in the German skilled crafts sector," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 45(3), pages 555-589, June.
    18. Dick M. Carpenter II & Lisa Knepper & Angela C. Erickson & John K. Ross, 2015. "Regulating Work: Measuring the Scope and Burden of Occupational Licensure Among Low- and Moderate-Income Occupations in the United States," Economic Affairs, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(1), pages 3-20, February.
    19. Kim Jeounghee & Chatterji Sangeeta, 2020. "Gender and Educational Variations in the Earnings Premiums of Occupational Credentials," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 20(3), pages 1-21, July.
    20. Mocetti, Sauro & Rizzica, Lucia & Roma, Giacomo, 2021. "Regulated occupations in Italy: Extent and labour market effects," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(C).

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:regeco:v:52:y:2017:i:2:d:10.1007_s11149-017-9333-y. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Sonal Shukla or Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.