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School Drop-Out and Push-Out Factors in Brazil: The Role of Early Parenthood, Child Labor, and Poverty

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  • Cardoso, Ana Rute

    () (IAE Barcelona (CSIC))

  • Verner, Dorte

    () (World Bank)

Abstract

This paper aims at identifying the major drop-out and push-out factors that lead to school abandonment in an urban surrounding, the shantytowns of Fortaleza, Northeast Brazil. We use an extensive survey addressing risk factors faced by the population in these neighborhoods, which covered both in-school and out-of-school youth, of both genders. The role of early parenthood, child labor, and poverty in pushing teenagers out of school is subject to particular attention. The potential endogeneity of some of the determinants is dealt with in the empirical analysis. We take advantage of the rich set of variables available and apply an instrumental variables approach. Early parenthood is instrumented with the age declared by the youngsters as the ideal age to start having sexual relationships; work is instrumented using the declared reservation wage (minimum salary acceptable to work). Results indicate that early parenthood has a strong impact driving teenagers out of school. Extreme poverty is another factor lowering school attendance, as children who have suffered hunger at some point in their lives are less likely to attend school. In this particular urban context, working does not necessarily have a detrimental effect on school attendance, which could be linked to the fact that dropping out of school leads most often to inactivity, and not to work.

Suggested Citation

  • Cardoso, Ana Rute & Verner, Dorte, 2006. "School Drop-Out and Push-Out Factors in Brazil: The Role of Early Parenthood, Child Labor, and Poverty," IZA Discussion Papers 2515, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp2515
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Verner, Dorte & Alda, Erik, 2004. "Youth at risk, social exclusion, and intergenerational poverty dynamics : A new survey instrument with application to Brazil," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3296, The World Bank.
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    10. Peter Jensen & Helena Skyt Nielsen, 1997. "Child labour or school attendance? Evidence from Zambia," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 10(4), pages 407-424.
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    12. Duryea, Suzanne & Arends-Kuenning, Mary, 2003. "School Attendance, Child Labor and Local Labor Market Fluctuations in Urban Brazil," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1165-1178, July.
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    Cited by:

    1. Orazem, Peter & Glewwe, Paul & Patrinos, Harry, 2007. "The Benefits and Costs of Alternative Strategies to Improve Educational Outcomes," Staff General Research Papers Archive 12853, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    2. Mariana Alfonso, 2008. "Las chicas sólo quieren divertirse? Sexualidad, embarazo y maternidad en las adolecentes de Bolivia," Research Department Publications 4539, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    3. No, Fata & Taniguchi, Kyoko & Hirakawa, Yukiko, 2016. "School dropout at the basic education level in rural Cambodia: Identifying its causes through longitudinal survival analysis," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 215-224.
    4. Cardoso, Ana Rute & Verner, Dorte, 2007. "Youth Risk-Taking Behavior in Brazil: Drug Use and Teenage Pregnancies," IZA Discussion Papers 3030, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. Shonchoy, Abu S. & Ito, Seiro, 2011. "Ramadan school holidays as a natural experiment : impacts of seasonality on school dropout in Bangladesh," IDE Discussion Papers 295, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
    6. Mariana Alfonso, 2008. "Girls Just Want to Have Fun? Sexuality, Pregnancy, and Motherhood among Bolivian Teenagers," Research Department Publications 4538, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    7. Mariana Alfonso, 2008. "Girls Just Want to Have Fun?: Sexuality, Pregnancy, and Motherhood among Bolivian Teenagers," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 1614, Inter-American Development Bank.
    8. Niall O'Higgins & Marcello D'Amato & Floro Ernesto Caroleo & Adriana Barone, 2007. "Gone for Good? Determinants of School Dropout in Southern Italy," Giornale degli Economisti, GDE (Giornale degli Economisti e Annali di Economia), Bocconi University, vol. 66(2), pages 207-246, July.
    9. L. Guarcello & S. Lyon, 2003. "Children's work and water access in Yemen," UCW Working Paper 53, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme).
    10. Toseef Azid & Rana Ejaz Ali Khan, 2010. "Who are the children going to school in Urban Punjab (Pakistan)?," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 37(6), pages 442-465, May.
    11. Amarante, Véronica & Ferrando, Mery & Vigorito, Andrea, 2011. "School Attendance, Child Labor and Cash Transfer: An impact evaluation of PANES," PEP Policy Briefs 164618, Partnership for Economic Policy (PEP).
    12. Marit Ursin, 2016. "Contradictory and Intersecting Patterns of Inclusion and Exclusion of Street Youth in Salvador, Brazil," Social Inclusion, Cogitatio Press, vol. 4(4), pages 39-50.
    13. repec:idb:brikps:73138 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    development; education; investment in human capital; Latin America; Brazil; school drop-out;

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • D1 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior

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