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Who are the children going to school in Urban Punjab (Pakistan)?

  • Toseef Azid
  • Rana Ejaz Ali Khan

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the demand side determinants of schooling of Pakistani urban children and the factors affecting boys and girls' schooling separately. Design/methodology/approach – This is an empirical study using the non-linear maximum likelihood probability (probit) function on primary data. Findings – Besides other variables it has been observed that the poverty remains an important determinant of school participation. Poor households keep their children out of school due to their inability to afford the cost of schooling. Research limitations/implications – On the basis of this study a socio-economic policy can be formulated for a developing country like Pakistan. Practical implications – A development policy can be formulated on the basis of this research for the enhancement of human resource development for a developing and an orthodox economy like Pakistan. Originality/value – The paper is beneficial to the researchers, policy makers, and social scientists for the enhancement of the level of social welfare through its findings.

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Article provided by Emerald Group Publishing in its journal International Journal of Social Economics.

Volume (Year): 37 (2010)
Issue (Month): 6 (May)
Pages: 442-465

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Handle: RePEc:eme:ijsepp:v:37:y:2010:i:6:p:442-465
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References listed on IDEAS
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  1. Emmanuel Skoufias & Susan Wendy Parker, 2001. "Conditional Cash Transfers and Their Impact on Child Work and Schooling: Evidence from the PROGRESA Program in Mexico," JOURNAL OF LACEA ECONOMIA, LACEA - LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION.
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  3. Behrman, Jere R & Sengupta, Piyali & Todd, Petra, 2005. "Progressing through PROGRESA: An Impact Assessment of a School Subsidy Experiment in Rural Mexico," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 54(1), pages 237-75, October.
  4. SIDDIQUI, Anjum & IRAM, Uzma, 2007. "Socioeconomic Determinants Of School Progression In Pakistan," Applied Econometrics and International Development, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 7(2), pages 179-192.
  5. Sawada, Yasayuki & Lokshin, Michael, 2001. "Household schooling decisions in rural Pakistan," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2541, The World Bank.
  6. Bhalotra, Sonia & Heady, Christopher, 2001. "Child farm labour : the wealth paradox," Social Protection Discussion Papers 24088, The World Bank.
  7. Qaisar Abbas, 2000. "The Role of Human Capital in Economic Growth: A Comparative Study of Pakistan and India," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 39(4), pages 451-473.
  8. Kaushik Basu, 2006. "Gender and Say: a Model of Household Behaviour with Endogenously Determined Balance of Power," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 116(511), pages 558-580, 04.
  9. Pinka Chatterji & Jeff DeSimone, 2005. "Adolescent Drinking and High School Dropout," NBER Working Papers 11337, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Jacoby, Hanan G & Skoufias, Emmanuel, 1997. "Risk, Financial Markets, and Human Capital in a Developing Country," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 64(3), pages 311-35, July.
  11. Usha Jayachandran, 2002. "Socio-Economic Determinants of School Attendance in India," Working papers 103, Centre for Development Economics, Delhi School of Economics.
  12. William L. Parish & Robert J. Willis, 1993. "Daughters, Education, and Family Budgets Taiwan Experiences," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 28(4), pages 863-898.
  13. Cardoso, Ana Rute & Verner, Dorte, 2007. "School drop-out and push-out factors in Brazil : the role of early parenthood, child labor, and poverty," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4178, The World Bank.
  14. Bedi, Arjun S. & Marshall, Jeffery H., 2002. "Primary school attendance in Honduras," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 129-153, October.
  15. Behrman, Jere R & Knowles, James C, 1999. "Household Income and Child Schooling in Vietnam," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 13(2), pages 211-56, May.
  16. Lloyd, Cynthia B & Mete, Cem & Sathar, Zeba A, 2005. "The Effect of Gender Differences in Primary School Access, Type, and Quality on the Decision to Enroll in Rural Pakistan," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 53(3), pages 685-710, April.
  17. Chaudhury, Nazmul & Parajuli, Dilip, 2006. "Conditional cash transfers and female schooling : the impact of the female school stipend program on public school enrollments in Punjab, Pakistan," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4102, The World Bank.
  18. Najam us Saqib, 2004. "Willingness to Pay for Primary Education in Rural Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 43(1), pages 27-51.
  19. Valerie L. Durrant, 1998. "Community Influences on Schooling and Work Activity of Youth in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 37(4), pages 915-937.
  20. Shahnaz Hamid & Rehana Siddiqui, 2001. "Gender Differences in Demand for Schooling," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 40(4), pages 1077-1092.
  21. Ravallion, Martin & Wodon, Quentin, 1999. "Does child labor displace schooling? - evidence on behavioral responses to an enrollment subsidy," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2116, The World Bank.
  22. Roebuck, M. Christopher & French, Michael T. & Dennis, Michael L., 2004. "Adolescent marijuana use and school attendance," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 133-141, April.
  23. Kochar, Anjini, 2004. "Urban influences on rural schooling in India," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 113-136, June.
  24. Patrick M. Emerson & Andre Portela Souza, 2002. "Bargaining over Sons and Daughters: Child Labor, School Attendance and Intra-Household Gender Bias in Brazil," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0213, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
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