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Simultaneous Analysis of Child Labour and Child Schooling: Comparative Evidence from Nepal and Pakistan

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  • Ranjan Ray

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Abstract

This study investigates the key determinants of child labour hours and child schooling experience paying special attention to the interaction between the two. A significant methodogical feature that distinguishes the present study from previous investigations is that this analysis recognises the joint endogeneity of child labour, child schooling and child poverty. The study is conducted on Nepalese and Pakistani data, and the results are compared. A key empirical finding, with significant policy implications, is the sharp trade off between child labour and child schooling. Another common feature of both countries is the gender bias in favour of boys schooling, though the bias is much larger in case of Pakistan.

Suggested Citation

  • Ranjan Ray, 2001. "Simultaneous Analysis of Child Labour and Child Schooling: Comparative Evidence from Nepal and Pakistan," ASARC Working Papers 2001-10, The Australian National University, Australia South Asia Research Centre.
  • Handle: RePEc:pas:asarcc:2001-10
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Kaushik Basu, 1999. "Child Labor: Cause, Consequence, and Cure, with Remarks on International Labor Standards," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 37(3), pages 1083-1119, September.
    2. Ray, R., 1999. "Poverty, Household Size and Child Welfare in India," Papers 1999-01, Tasmania - Department of Economics.
    3. Ranjan, Priya, 2001. "Credit constraints and the phenomenon of child labor," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 81-102, February.
    4. Foster, James & Greer, Joel & Thorbecke, Erik, 1984. "A Class of Decomposable Poverty Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 761-766, May.
    5. Cigno, Alessandro & Rosati, Furio C., 2000. "Why do Indian Children Work, and is it Bad for Them?," IZA Discussion Papers 115, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    6. Ranjan Ray, 2001. "Child Labour and Child Schooling in South Asia: A Cross Country Study of their Determinants," ASARC Working Papers 2001-09, The Australian National University, Australia South Asia Research Centre.
    7. Basu, Kaushik & Van, Pham Hoang, 1998. "The Economics of Child Labor," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 412-427, June.
    8. Swaminathan, Madhura, 1998. "Economic growth and the persistence of child labor: Evidence from an Indian city," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(8), pages 1513-1528, August.
    9. Carol Ann Rogers & Kenneth A. Swinnerton, 1999. "The Economics of Child Labor: Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(5), pages 1382-1385, December.
    10. Ray, Ranjan, 2000. "Child Labor, Child Schooling, and Their Interaction with Adult Labor: Empirical Evidence for Peru and Pakistan," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 14(2), pages 347-367, May.
    11. Saqib Jafarey & Sajal Lahiri, 2001. "Child Labour," World Economics, World Economics, 1 Ivory Square, Plantation Wharf, London, United Kingdom, SW11 3UE, vol. 2(1), pages 69-93, January.
    12. Martin Shubik, 2001. "On Understanding Money," World Economics, World Economics, 1 Ivory Square, Plantation Wharf, London, United Kingdom, SW11 3UE, vol. 2(1), pages 95-120, January.
    13. Ravallion, Martin & Wodon, Quentin, 2000. "Does Child Labour Displace Schooling? Evidence on Behavioural Responses to an Enrollment Subsidy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(462), pages 158-175, March.
    14. Sonia Bhalotra, 2003. "Child Labour in Africa," OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 4, OECD Publishing.
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    Cited by:

    1. Rana Ejaz Ali Khan & Karamat Ali, 2005. "Who Are Schooled in Urban Pakistan?," HEW 0505003, EconWPA.
    2. Karamat Ali & Rana Ejaz Ali Khan, 2004. "Simultaneous Decision Making of Child Schooling and Child Labour in Pakistani Urban Households," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 9(1), pages 127-148, Jan-June.
    3. Rana Ejaz Ali Khan & Karamat Ali, 2005. "Economically Active Children and Home-care Children: How Much They Differ," Labor and Demography 0510013, EconWPA.
    4. Awan, Masood Sarwar & Waqas, Muhammad & Aslam, Muhammad Amir, 2011. "Why do Parents Make their Children Work? Evidence from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey," MPRA Paper 31830, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Rana Ejaz Ali Khan, 2003. "Children in Different Activities: Child Schooling and Child Labour," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 42(2), pages 137-160.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • J20 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - General
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply

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