Child Labor And Schooling Decisions In Urban And Rural Areas: Cross-Country Evidence
Child labor is widespread in developing countries, but its causes are debatable. Poverty is considered the primary reason, but many theoretical and empirical analyses show that other factors, such as access to credit, school quality and labor market opportunities, play equal or even greater roles in child labor and schooling decisions. This study surveys the existing literature and, taking into account urban-rural divides, aims to shed light on the debate with empirical evidence from Nepal, Peru, and Zimbabwe. We find that while there is strong evidence that poverty drives child labor in rural areas, there is a general lack of support for poverty hypothesis in urban areas. This suggests that policies such as a ban on child labor in rural areas could have an adverse effect, as child labor decisions are more likely a response to poverty and subsistence requirements. Similarly improving access to credit has greater potential for alleviating child labor and enhancing school enrollment in rural than urban areas, particularly in Nepal and Zimbabwe. On the other hand, the availability of alternative childcare options appears to considerably decrease child labor and create conditions for higher school attendance rates in urban than rural areas. Finally, the evidence from all three countries indicates that efforts to bolster adult educational levels and wages will help curb the prevalence and intensity of child labor and improve the likelihood that children stay in school.
|Date of creation:||2003|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: (414) 918-3190
Fax: (414) 276-3349
Web page: http://www.aaea.orgEmail:
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Jafarey, Saqib & Lahiri, Sajal, 2002.
"Will trade sanctions reduce child labour?: The role of credit markets,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 137-156, June.
- Saqib Jafarey & Sajal Lahiri, 1999. "Will trade sanctions reduce child labour? The role of credit markets," Economics Discussion Papers 500, University of Essex, Department of Economics.
- Kaushik Basu, 1999.
"Child Labor: Cause, Consequence, and Cure, with Remarks on International Labor Standards,"
Journal of Economic Literature,
American Economic Association, vol. 37(3), pages 1083-1119, September.
- Basu, Kaushik, 1998. "Child labor : cause, consequence, and cure, with remarks on International Labor Standards," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2027, The World Bank.
- Becker, Gary S & Lewis, H Gregg, 1973. "On the Interaction between the Quantity and Quality of Children," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(2), pages S279-88, Part II, .
- repec:ner:tilbur:urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-74119 is not listed on IDEAS
- Sonia Bhalotra, 2000.
"Is child work necessary?,"
LSE Research Online Documents on Economics
6652, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Sonia Bhalotra, 2003. "Is Child Work Necessary?," Bristol Economics Discussion Papers 03/554, Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK.
- Sonia R Bhalotra, 2000. "Is Child Work Necessary?," STICERD - Development Economics Papers - From 2008 this series has been superseded by Economic Organisation and Public Policy Discussion Papers 26, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
- Bhalotra, Sonia, 2001. "Is child work necessary?," Social Protection Discussion Papers 24660, The World Bank.
- Sonia Bhalotra, 2000. "Is Child Work Necessary?," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 0500, Econometric Society.
- Pradhan, M.P. & van Soest, A.H.O., 1997. "Household labor supply in urban areas of Bolivia," Other publications TiSEM dba82438-cf2e-4d92-975b-a, School of Economics and Management.
- George Psacharopoulos & Harry Anthony Patrinos, 1997. "Family size, schooling and child labor in Peru - An empirical analysis," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 387-405.
- Robert J. Barro, 1989.
"Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries,"
NBER Working Papers
3120, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Canagarajah, Sudharshan & Coulombe, Harold, 1997. "Child labor and schooling in Ghana," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1844, The World Bank.
- Ranjan, P., 1999.
""Credit Constraints and the Phenomenon of Child Labor","
98-99-12, California Irvine - School of Social Sciences.
- Ranjan, Priya, 2001. "Credit constraints and the phenomenon of child labor," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 81-102, February.
- Glick, Peter & Sahn, David E., 1999. "Schooling of girls and boys in a West African country: the effects of parental education, income, and household structure," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 63-87, February.
- Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
- Smith, Richard J & Blundell, Richard W, 1986. "An Exogeneity Test for a Simultaneous Equation Tobit Model with an Application to Labor Supply," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(3), pages 679-85, May.
- Drusilla K. Brown, 2001.
"Child Labor in Latin America: Policy and Evidence,"
Discussion Papers Series, Department of Economics, Tufts University
0110, Department of Economics, Tufts University.
- Drusilla Brown, 2001. "Child Labour in Latin America: Policy and Evidence," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(6), pages 761-778, 06.
- Ranjan, Priya, 1999. "An economic analysis of child labor," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 99-105, July.
- Psacharopoulos, George, 1994.
"Returns to investment in education: A global update,"
Elsevier, vol. 22(9), pages 1325-1343, September.
- Psacharopoulos, George, 1993. "Returns to investment in education : a global update," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1067, The World Bank.
- N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1990.
"A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth,"
NBER Working Papers
3541, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jacoby, Hanan G, 1994. "Borrowing Constraints and Progress through School: Evidence from Peru," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 76(1), pages 151-60, February.
- Sonia R Bhalotra & Chris Heady, 2000.
"Child Farm Labour: Theory and Evidence,"
STICERD - Development Economics Papers - From 2008 this series has been superseded by Economic Organisation and Public Policy Discussion Papers
24, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
- Levison, Deborah & Moe, Karine S. & Marie Knaul, Felicia, 2001. "Youth Education and Work in Mexico," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 167-188, January.
- Basu, Kaushik & Van, Pham Hoang, 1998. "The Economics of Child Labor," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 412-27, June.
- Cochrane, S. & Kozel, V. & Alderman, H., 1990. "Household consequences of high fertility in Pakistan," World Bank - Discussion Papers 111, World Bank.
- Skoufias, Emmanual & Parker, Susan W., 2002.
"Labor market shocks and their impacts on work and schooling,"
129, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Skoufias, Emmanual & Parker, Susan W., 2002. "Labor market shocks and their impacts on work and schooling," FCND discussion papers 129, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Jacoby, Hanan G & Skoufias, Emmanuel, 1997. "Risk, Financial Markets, and Human Capital in a Developing Country," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 64(3), pages 311-35, July.
- Binder, Melissa, 1999. "Community effects and desired schooling of parents and children in Mexico," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 311-325, June.
- Ray, Ranjan, 2000. "Child Labor, Child Schooling, and Their Interaction with Adult Labor: Empirical Evidence for Peru and Pakistan," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 14(2), pages 347-67, May.
- Ranjan Ray, 2000.
"Analysis of child labour in Peru and Pakistan: A comparative study,"
Journal of Population Economics,
Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 3-19.
- Ray, R., 1998. "Analysis of Child Labour in Peru and Pakistan: a Comparative Study," Papers 1998-05, Tasmania - Department of Economics.
- Menno Pradhan & Arthur Van Soest, 1997. "Household Labor Supply In Urban Areas Of Bolivia," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(2), pages 300-310, May.
- George Psacharopoulos, 1997. "Child labor versus educational attainment Some evidence from Latin America," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 377-386.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ags:aaea03:21924. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.