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The Joint Estimation of Child Participation in Schooling and Employment: Comparative Evidence from Three Continents

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  • Pushkar Maitra

    ()

  • Ranjan Ray

    ()

Abstract

This paper uses data from Peru, Pakistan and Ghana to simultaneously analyse child labour and child schooling, and compares them between these countries .We use a multinomial logit estimation procedure that analyses the participation and non participation of children in schooling and in employment and, in particular, allows the possibility that a child combines schooling with employment or does neither. We also use an ordered probit estimation procedure based on a ranking of the various child schooling/employment/non schooling/non employment outcomes. The results point to both similarities and striking dissimilarities in the nature of child labour and child schooling between the chosen countries. For example, in Pakistan, but not in Peru, the girl child’s ordering of schooling/employment outcomes shows her at a position of extreme disadvantage. Household poverty discourages a child from achieving superior outcomes, but the effect varies markedly across the three countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Pushkar Maitra & Ranjan Ray, 2000. "The Joint Estimation of Child Participation in Schooling and Employment: Comparative Evidence from Three Continents," ASARC Working Papers 2000-04, The Australian National University, Australia South Asia Research Centre.
  • Handle: RePEc:pas:asarcc:2000-04
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    File URL: https://crawford.anu.edu.au/acde/asarc/pdf/papers/2000/WP2000_04.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Kaushik Basu, 1999. "Child Labor: Cause, Consequence, and Cure, with Remarks on International Labor Standards," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 37(3), pages 1083-1119, September.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Child Labour; Child Schooling; Multinomial Logit; Ordered Probit;

    JEL classification:

    • C2 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables
    • D1 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior
    • I3 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty
    • J2 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor
    • O1 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development

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