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Does Child Labour Affect School Attendance and School Performance?Multi Country Evidence on SIMPOC data

Author

Listed:
  • Geoffrey Lancaster
  • Ranjan Ray

Abstract

This paper provides evidence on the the impact of child labor on child schooling.The limited evidence that does exist on this issue makes little or no attempt to control for the endogeneity of child labour hours in the estimation.Such endogeneity can arise because of the reverse causation of child labour by learning dis advantage and lack of necessary intrinsic skills. The present study is conducted on the data sets of Belize,Cambodia,Namibia,Panama,Philippines,Portugal and Sri lanka, that were collected under the SIMPOC programme of the ILO.The study,that seeks to control for the endogeneity mentioned above, provides extensive evidence of the damage done by child labour to the child's education right from her point of entry to the labour market.A lone and significant exception is provided by the Sri Lankan results.The Sri Lankan evidence suggests a cut off point in the range of(approximately) 12-15 hours a week beyond which child work impacts negatively on the child's learning. This evidence is supportive of ILO Convention No. 138, Art. 7(b), which stipulates that "light work" may be permitted as of the age of 12 provided it does not "prejudice attendance at school".This is howvever not true of the evidence from other countries.One result that all the data sets agree on is the strong positive role that adult education plays in promoting the child's learning.

Suggested Citation

  • Geoffrey Lancaster & Ranjan Ray, 2004. "Does Child Labour Affect School Attendance and School Performance?Multi Country Evidence on SIMPOC data," Econometric Society 2004 Australasian Meetings 68, Econometric Society.
  • Handle: RePEc:ecm:ausm04:68
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    File URL: http://repec.org/esAUSM04/up.15362.1076562558.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Ranjan Ray, 2002. "The Determinants of Child Labour and Child Schooling in Ghana," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 11(4), pages 561-590, December.
    2. Orazem, Peter & Gunnarsson, Victoria, 2004. "Child Labour, School Attendance and Performance: A Review," Staff General Research Papers Archive 11177, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    3. Kaushik Basu, 1999. "Child Labor: Cause, Consequence, and Cure, with Remarks on International Labor Standards," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 37(3), pages 1083-1119, September.
    4. Kaushik Basu & Zafiris Tzannatos, 2003. "The Global Child Labor Problem: What Do We Know and What Can We Do?," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 17(2), pages 147-173, December.
    5. repec:ilo:ilowps:366541 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Sonia Bhalotra, 2007. "Is Child Work Necessary?," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 69(1), pages 29-55, February.
    7. Ray, R., 1999. "Poverty, Household Size and Child Welfare in India," Papers 1999-01, Tasmania - Department of Economics.
    8. F. Rosati & M. Rossi, 2001. "Children's Working Hours, School Enrolment and Human Capital Accumulation: Evidence from Pakistan and Nicaragua," UCW Working Paper 8, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme).
    9. FurioCamillo Rosati & Zafiris Tzannatos, 2006. "Child Labour In Vietnam," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 11(1), pages 1-31, February.
    10. Ranjan Ray, 2000. "Analysis of child labour in Peru and Pakistan: A comparative study," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 13(1), pages 3-19.
    11. Hideo Akabayashi & George Psacharopoulos, 1999. "The trade-off between child labour and human capital formation: A Tanzanian case study," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(5), pages 120-140.
    12. Hoddinott, John & Kinsey, Bill, 2001. " Child Growth in the Time of Drought," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 63(4), pages 409-436, September.
    13. Ravallion, Martin & Wodon, Quentin, 2000. "Does Child Labour Displace Schooling? Evidence on Behavioural Responses to an Enrollment Subsidy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(462), pages 158-175, March.
    14. Pushkar Maitra & Ranjan Ray, 2002. "The Joint Estimation of Child Participation in Schooling and Employment: Comparative Evidence from Three Continents," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, pages 41-62.
    15. George Psacharopoulos, 1997. "Child labor versus educational attainment Some evidence from Latin America," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 10(4), pages 377-386.
    16. Peter Jensen & Helena Skyt Nielsen, 1997. "Child labour or school attendance? Evidence from Zambia," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 10(4), pages 407-424.
    17. George Psacharopoulos & Harry Anthony Patrinos, 1997. "Family size, schooling and child labor in Peru - An empirical analysis," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 10(4), pages 387-405.
    18. Paul Glewwe, 2002. "Schools and Skills in Developing Countries: Education Policies and Socioeconomic Outcomes," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 40(2), pages 436-482, June.
    19. Ray, Ranjan, 2000. "Child Labor, Child Schooling, and Their Interaction with Adult Labor: Empirical Evidence for Peru and Pakistan," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 14(2), pages 347-367, May.
    20. Sonia Bhalotra, and Zafiris Tzannatos, 2003. "Child labor : what have we learnt?," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 27872, The World Bank.
    21. Orazem, Peter F. & Gunnarsson, Victoria., 2003. "Child labour, school attendance and academic performance : a review," ILO Working Papers 993665413402676, International Labour Organization.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

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    Cited by:

    1. Francavilla, Francesca & Giannelli, Gianna Claudia & Grilli, Leonardo, 2013. "Mothers’ Employment and their Children’s Schooling: A Joint Multilevel Analysis for India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 183-195.
    2. Rasheda Khanam & Russell Ross, 2011. "Is child work a deterrent to school attendance and school attainment?: Evidence from Bangladesh," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 38(8), pages 692-713, July.
    3. Goulart, Pedro & Bedi, Arjun S., 2008. "Child labour and educational success in Portugal," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 27(5), pages 575-587, October.
    4. Edmonds, Eric V., 2008. "Child Labor," Handbook of Development Economics, Elsevier.
    5. Kathleen Beegle & Rajeev Dehejia & Roberta Gatti, 2009. "Why Should We Care About Child Labor?: The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 44(4).
    6. Jean-Pierre Lachaud, 2007. "Scolarisation et travail des enfants : Un modèle économétrique à régimes endogènes appliqué à Madagascar - 2001-2005," Documents de travail 134, Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV.
    7. Khanam, Rasheda & Ross, Russell, 2005. "Impact of Child Labour on School Attendance and School Attainment: Evidence from Bangladesh," MPRA Paper 9397, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Apr 2008.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Child Labor; Light Work; IV Estimation; 3 SLS Estimation;

    JEL classification:

    • I20 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - General
    • O19 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - International Linkages to Development; Role of International Organizations

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