IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/wbk/hdnspu/27872.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Child labor : what have we learnt?

Author

Listed:
  • Sonia Bhalotra, and Zafiris Tzannatos

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to review what has been learnt from the growing volume of applied research on child labor and to indicate directions for future research. We start by looking at research by the World Bank, which has played a fairly pioneering role in this area in data collection and, increasingly, in data analysis, more recently in cooperation with other agencies, such as the ILO and UNICEF. With a view to guiding policy interventions in this area, we attempt to identify the patterns which arise from the study of a wide range of countries. We emphasize that the current state of empirical research makes this task difficult: A striking feature of available research is the sheer variety of results that it has produced. This review discusses the extent to which this diversity is a result of methodological problems, as opposed to genuine country variations. We argue that the neglect of statistical issues such as endogeneity, measurement error and aggregation error has biased the results of a number of studies. At least as important a shortcoming is that empirical research has been conducted without adequate reference to theory. As a result, the estimated equations are sometimes mis-specified and often difficult to interpret. This impedes the confidence with which policy prescriptions can be applied.

Suggested Citation

  • Sonia Bhalotra, and Zafiris Tzannatos, 2003. "Child labor : what have we learnt?," Social Protection Discussion Papers and Notes 27872, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:hdnspu:27872
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2004/02/18/000090341_20040218155225/Rendered/PDF/278720SP0discussion00317.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Dessy, Sylvain E., 2000. "A defense of compulsive measures against child labor," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(1), pages 261-275, June.
    2. Irineu Evangelista de Carvalho Filho, 2012. "Household Income as a Determinant of Child Labor and School Enrollment in Brazil: Evidence from a Social Security Reform," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 60(2), pages 399-435.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Bezerra, Márcio Eduardo G. & Kassouf, Ana Lucia & Arends-Kuenning, Mary P., 2009. "The Impact of Child Labor and School Quality on Academic Achievement in Brazil," IZA Discussion Papers 4062, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    2. Sudha Narayanan & Sowmya Dhanaraj, "undated". "Child Work and Schooling in Rural North India What Does Time Use Data Say About Tradeoffs and Drivers of Human Capital Investment?," Working Papers 2017-157, Madras School of Economics,Chennai,India.
    3. Garcia, Luis, 2006. "Oferta de trabajo infantil y el trabajo en los quehaceres del hogar [The supply of child labor and household work]," MPRA Paper 31402, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Reggio, Iliana, 2011. "The influence of the mother's power on her child's labor in Mexico," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(1), pages 95-105, September.
    5. Baland, Jean-Marie & Duprez, Cédric, 2007. "Are Fair Trade Labels Effective Against Child Labour?," CEPR Discussion Papers 6259, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    6. Zapata, Daniela & Contreras, Dante & Kruger, Diana, 2011. "Child Labor and Schooling in Bolivia: Who's Falling Behind? The Roles of Domestic Work, Gender, and Ethnicity," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(4), pages 588-599, April.
    7. Dammert, Ana C., 2008. "Child labor and schooling response to changes in coca production in rural Peru," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(1), pages 164-180, April.
    8. Sonia Bhalotra, 2007. "Is Child Work Necessary?," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 69(1), pages 29-55, February.
    9. Bernhard Ganglmair, 2005. "Intrinsic Competition and the Labor-Schooling Trade-off in Uganda Competition in Child Labor and Schooling Decision Making in Uganda. Evidence from a Bivariate Probit Model," Labor and Demography 0504002, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 21 Sep 2005.
    10. DeGraff, Deborah S. & Levison, Deborah, 2009. "Children's Work and Mothers' Work--What is the Connection?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(9), pages 1569-1587, September.
    11. Jean-Pierre Lachaud, 2008. "Le travail des enfants et la pauvreté en Afrique : un réexamen appliqué au Burkina Faso," Economie & Prévision, La Documentation Française, vol. 0(5), pages 47-65.
    12. Dante Contreras Guajardo & Diana Kruger & Daniela Zapata, 2007. "Child labor and schooling in Bolivia: Who’s falling behind?," Working Papers wp248, University of Chile, Department of Economics.
    13. Vimefall, Elin, 2015. "Income diversification and working children," Working Papers 2015:8, Örebro University, School of Business.
    14. Atul MEHTA & Joysankar BHATTACHARYA, 2019. "What discriminates the welfare outcomes of children in India. A multiple discriminant analysis in selected states," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER, vol. 0(2(619), S), pages 261-276, Summer.
    15. Carol Ann Rogers & Kenneth A. Swinnerton, 2004. "Does Child Labor Decrease When Parental Incomes Rise?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 112(4), pages 939-968, August.
    16. Tzannatos, Zafiris, 2003. "Child labor and school enrollment in Thailand in the 1990s," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(5), pages 523-536, October.
    17. Caine Rolleston, 2010. "Educational access and poverty reduction: the case of Ghana 1991-2006," Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación volume 5, in: María Jesús Mancebón-Torrubia & Domingo P. Ximénez-de-Embún & José María Gómez-Sancho & Gregorio Gim (ed.), Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación 5, edition 1, volume 5, chapter 32, pages 625-650, Asociación de Economía de la Educación.
    18. Vimefall, Elin, 2011. "What determines which children work? Empirical evidence from Kenya," Working Papers 2011:3, Örebro University, School of Business.
    19. Geoffrey Lancaster & Ranjan Ray, 2004. "Does Child Labour Affect School Attendance and School Performance?Multi Country Evidence on SIMPOC data," Econometric Society 2004 Australasian Meetings 68, Econometric Society.
    20. Liyousew Gebremedhin Borga, 2015. "Children's Own Time Use and its Effect on Skill Formation," CERGE-EI Working Papers wp534, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economics Institute, Prague.
    21. Sonia Bhalotra, 2004. "Parent Altruism, Cash Transfers and Child Poverty," Bristol Economics Discussion Papers 04/561, School of Economics, University of Bristol, UK.
    22. Baland, Jean-Marie & Duprez, Cédric, 2009. "Are labels effective against child labor?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(11-12), pages 1125-1130, December.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Michele Di Maio & Giorgio Fabbri, 2013. "Consumer boycott, household heterogeneity, and child labor," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 26(4), pages 1609-1630, October.
    2. Dessy, Sylvain E., 2003. "Endogenous Technical Progress and the Emergence of Child Labor Laws," Cahiers de recherche 0317, CIRPEE.
    3. Fabre, Alice & Pallage, Stéphane, 2015. "Child labor, idiosyncratic shocks, and social policy," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 394-411.
    4. Inés Berniell & Dolores de la Mata & Matilde Pinto Machado, 2020. "The Impact of a Permanent Income Shock on the Situation of Women in the Household: The Case of a Pension Reform in Argentina," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 68(4), pages 1295-1343.
    5. Francesca Marchetta & David E. Sahn, 2016. "The Role of Education and Family Background in Marriage, Childbearing, and Labor Market Participation in Senegal," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 64(2), pages 369-403.
    6. Ramona Schrepler, 2003. "Child Labor and Fertility," HEW 0310001, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 26 Feb 2004.
    7. Barrientos, Armando & Amann, Ed, 2014. "Is there a Brazilian model of development? Are there lessons for countries in Africa?," WIDER Working Paper Series 134, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    8. Kitaura, Koji, 2009. "Child labor, education aid, and economic growth," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 614-620, December.
    9. Bell, Clive & Gersbach, Hans, 2009. "Child Labor And The Education Of A Society," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 13(2), pages 220-249, April.
    10. Javier Olivera & Jhonatan Clausen, 2014. "Las características del adulto mayor peruano y las políticas de protección social," Revista Economía, Fondo Editorial - Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, vol. 37(73), pages 75-113.
    11. Olivier Bargain & Delphine Boutin, 2017. "Minimum Age Regulation and Child Labor: New Evidence from Brazil," Working Papers hal-01629988, HAL.
    12. L. Guarcello & S. Lyon, 2003. "Children's work and water access in Yemen," UCW Working Paper 53, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme).
    13. Armando Barrientos & Juan Miguel Villa, 2013. "Antipoverty transfers and labour force participation effects," Global Development Institute Working Paper Series 18513, GDI, The University of Manchester.
    14. Kruger, Diana I., 2007. "Coffee production effects on child labor and schooling in rural Brazil," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(2), pages 448-463, March.
    15. Rodrigo R. Soares & Diana Kruger & Matias Berthelon, 2012. "Household Choices of Child Labor and Schooling: A Simple Model with Application to Brazil," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 47(1), pages 1-31.
    16. Patrick M. Emerson & Shawn D. Knabb, 2013. "Bounded rationality, expectations, and child labour," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 46(3), pages 900-927, August.
    17. Sylvain E. Dessy & Flaubert Mbiekop & Stéphane Pallage, 2005. "The Economics of Child Trafficking (Part II)," Cahiers de recherche 0509, CIRPEE.
    18. Sarbajit Chaudhuri, 2004. "Incidence of Child Labour, Free Education Policy, and Economic Liberalisation in a Developing Economy," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 43(1), pages 1-25.
    19. Edmonds, Eric V., 2008. "Child Labor," Handbook of Development Economics, in: T. Paul Schultz & John A. Strauss (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 57, pages 3607-3709, Elsevier.
    20. Flaubert Mbiekop, 2012. "On Governance and the Demographic Transition," Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, AMH International, vol. 4(6), pages 319-330.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:hdnspu:27872. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/wrldbus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Raiden C. Dillard (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/wrldbus.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.