IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/mon/ceddtr/96.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Le travail des enfants et la pauvreté en Afrique : un réexamen appliqué au Burkina Faso

Author

Listed:
  • Jean-Pierre Lachaud

    (Groupe d'Economie du Développement Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV)

Abstract

Fondée sur les enquêtes prioritaires auprès des ménages de 1998 et de 2003, l'étude met en évidence l'ampleur du travail des enfants – 44,1 pour cent des enfants de 5-14 ans sont « économiquement actifs » en 2003, un ratio comparable entre les filles et les garçons, sauf pour le groupe d'âge de 10-14 ans où les premières sont désavantagées –, et examine l'impact de la pauvreté sur ce phénomène. Deux principales conclusions en résultent. Premièrement, l'hypothèse de l' « axiome de luxe » semble relativement robuste. Un modèle probit bivarié montre que, toutes choses égales par ailleurs – en particulier, en contrôlant par les effets fixes des 45 provinces –, la proportion des enfants de 5-14 ans économiquement actifs est nettement supérieure dans les ménages « pauvres », comparativement aux ménages « non pauvres ». En même temps, les privations monétaires réduisent la probabilité de scolarisation, et une relation inverse entre la fréquentation scolaire et la participation des enfants au marché du travail prévaut. De même, une analyse économétrique spatiale en termes de régimes spatio-temporels, fondée sur un modèle auto-régressif mixte inhérent aux 45 provinces, montre que la pauvreté régionale, appréhendée par les indices FGT, affecte positivement le taux régional de participation des enfants de 10-14 ans au marché du travail. Un résultat analogue prévaut en 2003 pour les enfants âgés de 5-14 ans, mais les élasticités sont un peu plus élevées. Deuxièmement, la prise en compte de la vulnérabilité des ménages, c'est-à-dire le risque de pauvreté, renforce l'argument de la « gestion du risque » : le travail des enfants peut être le reflet d'une stratégie des ménages visant à minimiser le risque d'interruption du flux des ressources. L'étude montre que la variabilité du niveau de vie, mesurée par la variance des dépenses en termes de pauvreté transitoire, rehausse la probabilité de travail des enfants, tout réduisant les chances de scolarisation, comparativement aux ménages situés en dessus de la ligne de pauvreté, alors que la vulnérabilité des familles pauvres, imputable B une faiblesse chronique des dépenses – pauvres durables –, n'affecte pas la propension au travail des enfants, et, dans certains cas, leur scolarisation, par rapport aux groupes les plus aisés. De même, l'analyse économétrique spatiale vérifie que, quels que soient les groupes d'âge retenus, la variation régionale de la pauvreté durable est sans effet sur l'incidence du travail des enfants, contrairement à la pauvreté transitoire. De tels résultats doivent être rapprochés, d'une part, de l'augmentation de la pauvreté globale entre 1998 et 2003, accompagnée d'une légère baisse de la pauvreté durable, et d'une croissance sensible de la pauvreté transitoire, et, d'autre part, de la relation étroite qui prévaut entre la variation effective de la pauvreté transitoire, et le ralentissement du rythme du processus de redistribution, via les envois de fonds de Côte d'Ivoire. En même temps, ils questionnent l'opportunité d'une législation trop sévère à l'encontre du travail des enfants, en l'absence de mécanismes susceptibles de réduire les fluctuations des gains des ménages. Based on the two household surveys of 1998 and 2003, the study highlights the extend of child labour – 44,1 percent of the children of 5-14 years are « economically active » in 2003, a comparable ratio between the girls and the boys, except for the group of age of 10-14 years where the first are more occupied –, and examines the impact of poverty on this phenomenon. Two principal conclusions result from it. Firstly, the assumption of the « luxury axiom » seems relatively robust. A bivariate probit model shows that, all things being equal – in particular, while controlling by the fixed effects of the 45 provinces –, the proportion of the children of 5-14 years economically active is definitely higher in the « poor » households, compared to the « non-poor » households. At the same time, the monetary deprivations reduce the probability of schooling, and an opposite relation between the school attendance and the child participation to the labour market prevails. In the same way, a spatial econometric analysis in terms of space-time regimes, based on a spatial lag model inherent to the 45 provinces, shows that the regional poverty, apprehended by the FGT indices, affects positively the regional rate of participation of the children of 10-14 years to the labour market. A similar result prevails in 2003 for the children of 5-14 years, but the elasticities are a little higher. Secondly, the consideration of the vulnerability of the households, i.e. the risk of poverty, reinforces the argument of the « risk management »: child work can be the reflection of a strategy of the households to minimize the risk of interruption of the resources stream. The study shows that the variability of the standard of living, measured by the variance of the expenditure in terms of transient poverty, raises the probability of child work, while reducing the chances of schooling, compared to the households above the line of poverty, whereas the vulnerability of the poor families, ascribable to a chronic weakness of the expenditure – the durable poor –, does not affect the child work propensity, and, in certain cases, their schooling, compared to the richest groups. In the same way, the spatial econometric analysis confirms that, independently of the groups of age chosen, the regional variation of durable poverty is without effect on the incidence of child work, contrary to the transient poverty. Such results must be associated, on the one hand, to the increase of total poverty between 1998 and 2003, accompanied by a weak fall of durable poverty, and by a significant growth of transient poverty, and, on the other hand, to the close connection which prevails between the effective variation of transient poverty, and the deceleration of the rhythm of the process of redistribution, via the remittances of Côte d'Ivoire. At the same time, they question the opportunity of a too severe legislation against the child work, in the absence of mechanisms likely to reduce the fluctuations of the incomes of households. (Full text in French)

Suggested Citation

  • Jean-Pierre Lachaud, 2004. "Le travail des enfants et la pauvreté en Afrique : un réexamen appliqué au Burkina Faso," Documents de travail 96, Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV.
  • Handle: RePEc:mon:ceddtr:96
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    To our knowledge, this item is not available for download. To find whether it is available, there are three options:
    1. Check below whether another version of this item is available online.
    2. Check on the provider's web page whether it is in fact available.
    3. Perform a search for a similarly titled item that would be available.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Edmonds, Eric V., 2008. "Child Labor," Handbook of Development Economics, in: T. Paul Schultz & John A. Strauss (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 57, pages 3607-3709, Elsevier.
    2. Kaushik Basu, 1999. "Child Labor: Cause, Consequence, and Cure, with Remarks on International Labor Standards," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 37(3), pages 1083-1119, September.
    3. Anu Rammohan, 2000. "The Interaction of Child-labour and Schooling in Developing Countries: A Theoretical Perspective," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 25(2), pages 85-99, December.
    4. Jean-Pierre Lachaud, 2005. "Crise ivoirienne, envois de fonds et pauvreté au Burkina Faso," Revue Tiers-Monde, Armand Colin, vol. 0(3), pages 651-673.
    5. Canagarajah, Sudharshan & Coulombe, Harold, 1997. "Child labor and schooling in Ghana," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1844, The World Bank.
    6. Jean-Pierre Lachaud, 2004. "Transferts privés de Côte d'Ivoire et pauvreté durable et transitoire au Burkina Faso : une analyse spatio-temporelle," Documents de travail 93, Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV.
    7. Hideo Akabayashi & George Psacharopoulos, 1999. "The trade-off between child labour and human capital formation: A Tanzanian case study," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(5), pages 120-140.
    8. Rosenzweig, Mark R & Evenson, Robert E, 1977. "Fertility, Schooling, and the Economic Contribution of Children in Rural India: An Econometric Analysis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 45(5), pages 1065-1079, July.
    9. Pushkar Maitra & Ranjan Ray, 2002. "The Joint Estimation of Child Participation in Schooling and Employment: Comparative Evidence from Three Continents," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(1), pages 41-62.
    10. Grootaert, Christiaan & Kanbur, Ravi, 1995. "Child labor : a review," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1454, The World Bank.
    11. Ranjan Ray, 2000. "Analysis of child labour in Peru and Pakistan: A comparative study," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 13(1), pages 3-19.
    12. Peter Jensen & Helena Skyt Nielsen, 1997. "Child labour or school attendance? Evidence from Zambia," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 10(4), pages 407-424.
    13. Anselin, Luc & Bera, Anil K. & Florax, Raymond & Yoon, Mann J., 1996. "Simple diagnostic tests for spatial dependence," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 77-104, February.
    14. Duryea, Suzanne & Arends-Kuenning, Mary, 2003. "School Attendance, Child Labor and Local Labor Market Fluctuations in Urban Brazil," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1165-1178, July.
    15. Tzannatos, Zafiris, 2003. "Child labor and school enrollment in Thailand in the 1990s," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(5), pages 523-536, October.
    16. Tanaka, Ryuichi, 2003. "Inequality as a determinant of child labor," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 80(1), pages 93-97, July.
    17. Basu, Kaushik, 2002. "A note on multiple general equilibria with child labor," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 74(3), pages 301-308, February.
    18. Blunch,Niels-Hugo & Verner,Dorte, 2000. "Revisiting the link between poverty and child labor - the Ghanaian experience," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2488, The World Bank.
    19. Kaushik Basu & Zafiris Tzannatos, 2003. "The Global Child Labor Problem: What Do We Know and What Can We Do?," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 17(2), pages 147-173, December.
    20. Grootaert, Christiaan, 1998. "Child labor in Cote d'Ivoire: incidence and determinants," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1905, The World Bank.
    21. Gupta, Manash Ranjan, 2000. "Wage Determination of a Child Worker: A Theoretical Analysis," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 4(2), pages 219-228, June.
    22. Basu, Kaushik & Van, Pham Hoang, 1998. "The Economics of Child Labor," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 412-427, June.
    23. Emerson, Patrick M & Souza, Andre Portela, 2003. "Is There a Child Labor Trap? Intergenerational Persistence of Child Labor in Brazil," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 51(2), pages 375-398, January.
    24. Edmonds & Eric V., 2004. "Household composition and the response of child labor supply to product market integration: evidence from Vietnam," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3235, The World Bank.
    25. Ranjan, Priya, 1999. "An economic analysis of child labor," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 99-105, July.
    26. Strauss, John & Thomas, Duncan, 1995. "Human resources: Empirical modeling of household and family decisions," Handbook of Development Economics, in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 34, pages 1883-2023, Elsevier.
    27. Jean-Pierre Lachaud, 2003. "Dynamique de pauvreté, inégalité et urbanisation au Burkina Faso," Série de recherche 07, Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV.
    28. Ravallion, Martin & Wodon, Quentin, 2000. "Does Child Labour Displace Schooling? Evidence on Behavioural Responses to an Enrollment Subsidy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(462), pages 158-175, March.
    29. George Psacharopoulos, 1997. "Child labor versus educational attainment Some evidence from Latin America," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 10(4), pages 377-386.
    30. Strauss, J. & Thomas, D., 1995. "Empirical Modeling of Household and Family Decisions," Papers 95-12, RAND - Reprint Series.
    31. Nielsen, H.S., 1998. "Child Labor and School Attendance: Two Joint Decisions," Papers 98-15, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research, Danmark-.
    32. Sonia Bhalotra, and Zafiris Tzannatos, 2003. "Child labor : what have we learnt?," Social Protection Discussion Papers and Notes 27872, The World Bank.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Moussa KEITA, 2014. "Pauvreté et arbitrage entre scolarisation et travail des enfants au Mali," Working Papers 201418, CERDI.
    2. ABALO, Kodzovi, 2012. "Child labor in agricultural households in Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast and Mali: test of the luxury axiom by a fuzzy sets theory approach," MPRA Paper 54940, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Abalo, Kodzovi, 2012. "Enquete sur les conditions de travail des enfants issus des ménages agricoles en Afrique de l'Ouest [A Survey of the Child Labor in West Africa]," MPRA Paper 66382, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. F. Blanco & M. G. Breglia & L. Guarcello & C. Valdivia, 2008. "Violence against children:preliminary evidence from Colombia, El Salvador, Cambodia and Ecuador," UCW Working Paper 41, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme).
    5. Abou, Pokou Edouard, 2015. "Incidence du travail domestique, des caractéristiques de l’école et du ménage sur les résultats scolaires des filles en Côte d’Ivoire [Incidence of domestic work, school and household characteristi," MPRA Paper 43976, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Sonia Bhalotra, 2007. "Is Child Work Necessary?," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 69(1), pages 29-55, February.
    2. Drusilla K. Brown & Alan V. Deardorff & Robert M. Stern, 2009. "The Effects of Multinational Production on Wages and Working Conditions in Developing Countries," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Globalization And International Trade Policies, chapter 17, pages 623-687, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    3. Shunsuke Sakamoto, 2006. "Parental Attitudes toward Children and Child Labor: Evidence from Rural India," Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series d05-136, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    4. Sudha Narayanan & Sowmya Dhanaraj, "undated". "Child Work and Schooling in Rural North India What Does Time Use Data Say About Tradeoffs and Drivers of Human Capital Investment?," Working Papers 2017-157, Madras School of Economics,Chennai,India.
    5. Moussa Keita, 2014. "Pauvreté et arbitrage entre scolarisation et travail des enfants au Mali," Working Papers halshs-01064821, HAL.
    6. Drusilla K. Brown & Alan V. Deardorff & Robert M Stern, 2001. "Child Labor: Theory, Evidence, and Policy," Working Papers 474, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
    7. Geoffrey Lancaster & Ranjan Ray, 2004. "Does Child Labour Affect School Attendance and School Performance?Multi Country Evidence on SIMPOC data," Econometric Society 2004 Australasian Meetings 68, Econometric Society.
    8. Kimhi, Ayal, 2007. "Does Land Reform In Transition Countries Increase Child Labor? Evidence From The Republic Of Georgia," Discussion Papers 7147, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Agricultural Economics and Management.
    9. Heather Congdon Fors, 2012. "Child Labour: A Review Of Recent Theory And Evidence With Policy Implications," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(4), pages 570-593, September.
    10. Edmonds, Eric V., 2008. "Child Labor," Handbook of Development Economics, in: T. Paul Schultz & John A. Strauss (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 57, pages 3607-3709, Elsevier.
    11. Vimefall, Elin, 2011. "What determines which children work? Empirical evidence from Kenya," Working Papers 2011:3, Örebro University, School of Business.
    12. Pushkar Maitra & Ranjan Ray, 2002. "The Joint Estimation of Child Participation in Schooling and Employment: Comparative Evidence from Three Continents," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(1), pages 41-62.
    13. Eric V. Edmonds, 2005. "Does Child Labor Decline with Improving Economic Status?," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 40(1).
    14. Karina Acevedo González & Raúl Quejada Pérez & Martha Yánez Contreras, 2011. "Determinantes y consecuencias del trabajo infantil: un análisis de la literatura," Revista Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, June.
    15. Bhalotra, Sonia & Heady, Chris, 2000. "Child farm labour: theory and evidence," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 6654, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    16. Patrick M. Emerson & André Portela Souza, 2011. "Is Child Labor Harmful? The Impact of Working Earlier in Life on Adult Earnings," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59(2), pages 345-385.
    17. Yacouba Diallo, 2001. "Les déterminants du travail des enfants en Côte d'Ivoire," Documents de travail 55, Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV.
    18. Rana Ejaz Ali Khan, 2003. "Children in Different Activities: Child Schooling and Child Labour," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 42(2), pages 137-160.
    19. Kathleen Beegle & Rajeev Dehejia & Roberta Gatti, 2009. "Why Should We Care About Child Labor?: The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 44(4).
    20. Sarbajit Chaudhuri & Jayanta Kumar Dwibedi, 2006. "Trade Liberalization in Agriculture in Developed Nations and Incidence of Child Labour in a Developing Economy," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(2), pages 129-150, April.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • I31 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - General Welfare, Well-Being
    • J4 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:mon:ceddtr:96. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: The email address of this maintainer does not seem to be valid anymore. Please ask the person in charge to update the entry or send us the correct address (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.