Child labor and school decisions in urban and rural areas
"Child labor is widespread in developing countries, but its causes are debatable. Poverty is considered the primary reason, but many theoretical and empirical analyses show that other factors, such as lack of access to credit, poor school quality, and labor market opportunities play equal or even greater roles in the decision to have children work. This study surveys the existing literature and, taking into account urban-rural divides, aims to shed light on the debate with empirical evidence from Nepal, Peru, and Zimbabwe. We find that while poverty drives child work and schooling in rural areas, it does not appear to significantly influence such decisions in urban areas. This suggests that policies such as trade sanctions or a ban on child labor in rural areas could have an adverse effect as child labor decisions in such areas are more likely a response to poverty and subsistence requirements. Similarly, improving access to credit has greater potential for alleviating child labor and enhancing school enrollment in rural than urban areas, particularly in Nepal and Zimbabwe. On the other hand, the availability of alternative childcare options appears to considerably decrease child labor and create conditions for higher school attendance rates in urban than in rural areas. Finally, evidence from all three countries indicates that efforts to bolster adult educational levels and wages will help curb the prevalence and intensity of child labor and improve the likelihood that children stay in school. " Author's Abstract
|Date of creation:||2002|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.ifpri.org/Email:
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Cochrane, S. & Kozel, V. & Alderman, H., 1990. "Household consequences of high fertility in Pakistan," World Bank - Discussion Papers 111, World Bank.
- Glick, Peter & Sahn, David E., 1999. "Schooling of girls and boys in a West African country: the effects of parental education, income, and household structure," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 63-87, February.
- Ranjan, Priya, 1999. "An economic analysis of child labor," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 99-105, July.
- Kaushik Basu, 1999.
"Child Labor: Cause, Consequence, and Cure, with Remarks on International Labor Standards,"
Journal of Economic Literature,
American Economic Association, vol. 37(3), pages 1083-1119, September.
- Basu, Kaushik, 1998. "Child labor : cause, consequence, and cure, with remarks on International Labor Standards," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2027, The World Bank.
- Sonia Bhalotra & Chris Heady, 2000.
"Child farm labour: theory and evidence,"
LSE Research Online Documents on Economics
6654, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Sonia R Bhalotra & Chris Heady, 2000. "Child Farm Labour: Theory and Evidence," STICERD - Development Economics Papers - From 2008 this series has been superseded by Economic Organisation and Public Policy Discussion Papers 24, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
- Jacoby, Hanan G & Skoufias, Emmanuel, 1997. "Risk, Financial Markets, and Human Capital in a Developing Country," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 64(3), pages 311-35, July.
- Psacharopoulos, George, 1993.
"Returns to investment in education : a global update,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
1067, The World Bank.
- Psacharopoulos, George, 1994. "Returns to investment in education: A global update," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 22(9), pages 1325-1343, September.
- George Psacharopoulos & Harry Anthony Patrinos, 1997. "Family size, schooling and child labor in Peru - An empirical analysis," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 387-405.
- Robert J. Barro, 1989.
"Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries,"
NBER Working Papers
3120, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Sonia Bhalotra, 2000.
"Is Child Work Necessary?,"
Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers
0500, Econometric Society.
- Sonia Bhalotra, 2003. "Is Child Work Necessary?," Bristol Economics Discussion Papers 03/554, Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK.
- Bhalotra, Sonia, 2001. "Is child work necessary?," Social Protection Discussion Papers 24660, The World Bank.
- Sonia Bhalotra, 2000. "Is child work necessary?," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 6652, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Sonia R Bhalotra, 2000. "Is Child Work Necessary?," STICERD - Development Economics Papers - From 2008 this series has been superseded by Economic Organisation and Public Policy Discussion Papers 26, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
- Pradhan, M.P. & van Soest, A.H.O., 1997. "Household labor supply in urban areas of Bolivia," Other publications TiSEM dba82438-cf2e-4d92-975b-a, School of Economics and Management.
- Glick, Peter & Sahn, David E, 1997. "Gender and Education Impacts on Employment and Earnings in West Africa: Evidence from Guinea," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(4), pages 793-823, July.
- Swaminathan, Madhura, 1998. "Economic growth and the persistence of child labor: Evidence from an Indian city," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(8), pages 1513-1528, August.
- Killingsworth, Mark R. & Heckman, James J., 1987. "Female labor supply: A survey," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & R. Layard (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 2, pages 103-204 Elsevier.
- Jeffrey Alwang & Lire Ersado & Nelson Taruvinga, 2001. "Changes in poverty in Zimbabwe between 1990 and 1996: Worsening outcomes under adverse conditions," Development Southern Africa, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(5), pages 553-579.
- Canagarajah, Sudharshan & Coulombe, Harold, 1997. "Child labor and schooling in Ghana," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1844, The World Bank.
- Drusilla K. Brown, 2001.
"Child Labor in Latin America: Policy and Evidence,"
Discussion Papers Series, Department of Economics, Tufts University
0110, Department of Economics, Tufts University.
- Drusilla Brown, 2001. "Child Labour in Latin America: Policy and Evidence," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(6), pages 761-778, 06.
- Chiappori, Pierre-Andre & Haddad, Lawrence & Hoddinott, John & Kanbur, Ravi, 1993.
"Unitary versus collective models of the household : time to shift theburden of proof?,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
1217, The World Bank.
- Alderman, H. & Chiappori, P.A. & Haddad, L., 1994. "Unitary versus Collective Models of the Household: Time to Shift the Burden of Proof?," DELTA Working Papers 94-17, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
- N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1990.
"A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth,"
NBER Working Papers
3541, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ray, R., 1998.
"Analysis of Child Labour in Peru and Pakistan: a Comparative Study,"
1998-05, Tasmania - Department of Economics.
- Ranjan Ray, 2000. "Analysis of child labour in Peru and Pakistan: A comparative study," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 3-19.
- Ray, Ranjan, 2000. "Child Labor, Child Schooling, and Their Interaction with Adult Labor: Empirical Evidence for Peru and Pakistan," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 14(2), pages 347-67, May.
- Saqib Jafarey & Sajal Lahiri, 1999.
"Will trade sanctions reduce child labour? The role of credit markets,"
Economics Discussion Papers
500, University of Essex, Department of Economics.
- Jafarey, Saqib & Lahiri, Sajal, 2002. "Will trade sanctions reduce child labour?: The role of credit markets," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 137-156, June.
- Basu, Kaushik & Van, Pham Hoang, 1998. "The Economics of Child Labor," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 412-27, June.
- Becker, Gary S & Lewis, H Gregg, 1973. "On the Interaction between the Quantity and Quality of Children," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(2), pages S279-88, Part II, .
- George Psacharopoulos, 1997. "Child labor versus educational attainment Some evidence from Latin America," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 377-386.
- Ruel, Marie T. & Levin, Carol E. & Armar-Klemesu, Margaret & Maxwell, Daniel & Morris, Saul S., 1999. "Good Care Practices Can Mitigate the Negative Effects of Poverty and Low Maternal Schooling on Children's Nutritional Status: Evidence from Accra," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(11), pages 1993-2009, November.
- repec:ner:tilbur:urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-74119 is not listed on IDEAS
- Jacoby, Hanan G, 1994. "Borrowing Constraints and Progress through School: Evidence from Peru," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 76(1), pages 151-60, February.
- Alderman, Harold, et al, 1995. "Unitary versus Collective Models of the Household: Is It Time to Shift the Burden of Proof?," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 10(1), pages 1-19, February.
- Menno Pradhan & Arthur Van Soest, 1997. "Household Labor Supply In Urban Areas Of Bolivia," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(2), pages 300-310, May.
- Skoufias, Emmanual & Parker, Susan W., 2002.
"Labor market shocks and their impacts on work and schooling,"
FCND discussion papers
129, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Skoufias, Emmanual & Parker, Susan W., 2002. "Labor market shocks and their impacts on work and schooling," FCND briefs 129, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
- Wim P. M. Vijverberg, 1993. "Educational Investments and Returns for Women and Men in Côte d'Ivoire," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 28(4), pages 933-974.
- Smith, Richard J & Blundell, Richard W, 1986. "An Exogeneity Test for a Simultaneous Equation Tobit Model with an Application to Labor Supply," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(3), pages 679-85, May.
- Ersado, Lire & Alderman, Harold & Alwang, Jeffrey, 2003. "Changes in Consumption and Saving Behavior before and after Economic Shocks: Evidence from Zimbabwe," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 52(1), pages 187-215, October.
- Binder, Melissa, 1999. "Community effects and desired schooling of parents and children in Mexico," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 311-325, June.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fpr:fcnddp:145. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.