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Child Labor and Schooling Response to Changes in Coca Production in Rural Peru


  • Dammert, Ana C.

    () (Carleton University)


Coca eradication and interdiction are the most common policies aimed at reducing the production and distribution of cocaine in the Andes, but little is known about their impact on households. This paper uses the shift in the production of coca leaves from Peru to Colombia in 1995 to analyze the indirect effects of the anti-coca policy on children’s allocation of time. After different sensitivity checks, the results indicate that a decrease in coca production are associated with increases in work and hours children living in coca-growing states devote to work within and outside the household, with no effects on schooling outcomes. These findings suggest a previously undocumented indirect effect of drug policies on household behavior.

Suggested Citation

  • Dammert, Ana C., 2007. "Child Labor and Schooling Response to Changes in Coca Production in Rural Peru," IZA Discussion Papers 2869, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp2869

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Christina Paxson & Norbert R. Schady, 2002. "The Allocation and Impact of Social Funds: Spending on School Infrastructure in Peru," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 16(2), pages 297-319, August.
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    13. Drusilla K. Brown & Alan V. Deardorff & Robert M Stern, 2001. "Child Labor: Theory, Evidence, and Policy," Working Papers 474, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
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    16. Ersado, Lire, 2005. "Child Labor and Schooling Decisions in Urban and Rural Areas: Comparative Evidence from Nepal, Peru, and Zimbabwe," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 455-480, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. Emla Fitzsimons & Alice Mesnard, 2008. "Are boys and girls affected differently when the household head leaves for good? Evidence from school and work choices in Colombia," IFS Working Papers W08/11, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
    2. Edmonds, Eric V., 2008. "Child Labor," Handbook of Development Economics, Elsevier.
    3. Reyes, Luis Carlos, 2014. "Estimating the Causal Effect of Forced Eradication on Coca Cultivation in Colombian Municipalities," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 70-84.
    4. Higuchi, Angie, 2014. "Impact of a Marketing Cooperative on Cocoa Producers and Intermediaries: The Case of the Acopagro Cooperative in Peru," Journal of Rural Cooperation, Hebrew University, Center for Agricultural Economic Research, vol. 42(1).
    5. Fabre, Alice & Pallage, Stéphane, 2015. "Child labor, idiosyncratic shocks, and social policy," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 394-411.
    6. Heather Congdon Fors, 2012. "Child Labour: A Review Of Recent Theory And Evidence With Policy Implications," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(4), pages 570-593, September.
    7. Johnston, Deborah & Stevano, Sara & Malapit, Hazel J. & Hull, Elizabeth & Kadiyala, Suneetha, 2015. "Agriculture, gendered time use, and nutritional outcomes: A systematic review:," IFPRI discussion papers 1456, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    8. Eric V. Edmonds & Norbert Schady, 2012. "Poverty Alleviation and Child Labor," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 4(4), pages 100-124, November.
    9. Fitzsimons, Emla & Mesnard, Alice, 2008. "Are Boys and Girls Affected Differently When the Household Head Leaves for Good? Evidence from School and Work Choices in Colombia," CEPR Discussion Papers 7040, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    10. repec:oup:ajagec:v:99:y:2017:i:1:p:34-54. is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Edmonds, Eric V. & Shrestha, Maheshwor, 2014. "You get what you pay for: Schooling incentives and child labor," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 111(C), pages 196-211.
    12. Harounan Kazianga & Francis Makamu, 2017. "Crop Choice, School Participation, and Child Labor in Developing Countries: Cotton Expansion in Burkina Faso," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 99(1), pages 34-54.
    13. Diether W. Beuermann, 2015. "Information and Communications Technology, Agricultural Profitability and Child Labor in Rural Peru," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(4), pages 988-1005, November.
    14. Fitzsimons, Emla & Mesnard, Alice, 2013. "Can conditional cash transfers compensate for a father's absence ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6476, The World Bank.
    15. Fitzsimons, Emla & Mesnard, Alice, 2012. "How children’s schooling and work is affected when their father leaves permanently: Evidence from Colombia," CEPR Discussion Papers 8886, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    16. Ulrik Beck & Saurabh Singhal & Finn Tarp, 2016. "Coffee price volatility and intra-household labour supply," WIDER Working Paper Series 016, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    17. Emla Fitzsimons & Alice Mesnard, 2012. "How children's schooling and work are affected when their father leaves permanently: evidence from Colombia," IFS Working Papers W12/04, Institute for Fiscal Studies.

    More about this item


    Peru; coca production; child labor; schooling;

    JEL classification:

    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population

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